No 7th Continent here...

“Europe” = West Asia?

“Geographically, Europe is a tail to the Asiatic kite.” [1]

The word “Europe” derives from the roots ”eur-” + “op-” meaning “broad-faced”.

Why do people call the western portion of Asia “Europe”?

It’s not a continent.

South Asia is bigger, and has more people, ethnicities and languages, and it’s not considered a continent. The same goes for Southeast Asia, which is also not considered a continent. The same goes for China, and it’s only considered a country!

Nearly every West Asian language has its roots in another part of Asia.

Nearly every West Asian religion was founded in another part of Asia.

So why should West Asia be called “Europe” and classified as a continent?

Don’t tell me it’s because “Europeans” are white. First of all, nobody is white, or black. Have you ever seen a person the color of either of these hands?

black and white

In fact, there is no skin color, and hardly a phenotypical characteristic, found in West Asia that is not found (or original to) another part of Asia or North Africa. You can hardly find a Nord, even, who doesn’t “look” half-“Asian”.

…because they are all Asian…

asiatic 2

asiatic 3

“There is no such thing as a white race, much as this is talked of, but every white man is a faded or bleached one.” (Schopenhauer [2])

The “distinctive culture/heritage” doesn’t fly, either. Has Western Asia spread its religion, language, alphabet and philosophy further than South Asia has historically? Certainly not, when you consider Buddhism and the Sanskrit alphabet alone. Let’s not even go into the South Asian-West Asian (Indo-“European”) language “family”. It’s really the South Asian language family (which took root in West Asia as much as it did other parts of Asia).

There is no such continent as “Europe”. As a common name for West Asia, perhaps the term could still survive.

That notwithstanding, the “E”U is AWAN- Association of West Asian Nations, a regional bloc like ASEAN (Association of South-East Asian Nations). Or we could call it WAARC- West Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, like SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation).

“european” as a phenotypical designation could work: the word “Europe” derives from the roots ”eur-” + “op-” meaning “broad-faced”[3]. It’s just another term like dolichocephalic, prognathous, etc.

Both are european (broad-headed), ethnicities are irrelevant (

That DOES make something of a case for using europe in a place name, but as a place name, it would be Europia (the same way the Greek words comprising Ethiopia (‘land of burnt faces’, literally) is conjugated. Either way, “Europia”, ‘Land of the Broad-Headed’ would not correspond to traditional “Europe”:

Long story short:

“Europe” is West Asia.

“Western Europe” is Far West Asia.

“Europeans” are West Asians.

“Western” means West Asian.

No 7th Continent here...

No 7th Continent here…


Next up:  Arabia is North-East Africa…

[1] Dorsey, George. Why We Behave Like Human Beings, pp. 44-45; quoted in Jackson, John G. “Ethiopia and the Origin of Civilization” (1939); Retrieved 17.12.2014 from
[2] Jackson, John G. “Ethiopia and the Origin of Civilization” (1939); Retrieved 17.12.2014 from
[3]”Why ‘Race’ Matters and ‘The Races’ Don’t”. Retrieved 18.12.2014 from

swastika akan

Afrikan Swastika

From the Volta to the Congo to the Nile, from scarification to gold weights to hieroglyphics, the swastika has been used throughout Afriqa for a long time…

When you see hear the word “swastika or see this symbol


what are the first words that come to your mind?




“Blonde hair and blue eyes.”

Then where would you guess these come from?

gold dust weights akan goldweight ashanti ashanti goldweight

An educated guess would be India.  But no, they are all from Africa.  That’s right Sub-Saharan, “Black” A-F-R-I-C-A.  They are gold dust weights used by the Ashanti, to be more precise.

No, not this Ashanti…


These Ashanti:


The ones who make kinte cloth…


They are also called Akan. The Akan occupy a large part of West Africa including parts of Ghana and the Ivory Coast and include many sub-ethnic groups such as the Baule and the Asante (Ashanti). [1]  The Akan were producing them to weigh gold dust which was their currency, thus the name ‘gold weights’.  When used on the gold weight, the swastika was a symbol of currency, expressing power, money, wealth and integrity.  The idea and the implementation of gold-based currency came from the Akan people of modern-day Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana. [5]


The swastika is also one of the Akan people’s famous Adinkra symbols.  Look at number 12 below:

According to one source, the swastika is referred to by the Akan as a monkey’s foot. [1]  Another source says it is called Kode Emower Ewa (‘talons of the eagle’), represents devotion and service and is shaved on the back of the heads of the Queen Mother’s servants. [2]  Still another source names it Nkotimsefuopua, claiming similarly that certain attendants on the Queen Mother who dressed their hair in this fashion. [3]

The Asante also weave the swastika into their cloth.  See the top left corner below:


Another Adinkra swastika?

The above is a kinte cloth symbol called Apremo-Canon.  It is a symbol of resistance against foreign domination, and superior military strategy.  This motif represents  the superior military strategy with which Akan nations such as the Asante and Akwamu defeated the West Asians who had superior arms. [6]

But how could this be?  How did Africans learn about the swastika?

If your idea of swastika is the symbol of a Nordic (tall, blonde, blue-eyed) race who conquered India from the north before invading West Asia  (“Europe”), that’s a good question.

The idea is not to decouple the swastika symbol and the Aryans.  Rather, one must decouple the Aryan from Nordic, and race from ethnicity.

No signs of a Nordic Aryan invasion here...

No signs of a Nordic Aryan invasion here…

Arya means pure or good in Sanskrit. In the holy Vedas the good people were called Arya.[2]

So “Arya” means, in short, “noble”.  It appears to be an adjective, and can not refer to a group of people.  If it is a noun, it translates to “nobility”  Either way, it refers to the CHARACTER, NOT the APPEARANCE of certain people.  Note: The word “Aryan” does not appear.

So how did the word Aryan come into existence, and how did it become associated with a blonde, blue-eyed master race?

Fredrich Max Muller, a staunch German nationalist and Christian missionary, was Professor of Sanskrit at Oxford labored for years translating the Vedas into English.
In 1851 Muller wrote his first article in English wherein he used the word “Aryan” for the first time in the sense of a race.

Max Muller’s good friend and fellow Indologist Paul then popularized the word “Aryan” in France. Soon many Christian scholars were seized upon by the theory of Aryan race. In 1859 Swiss linguist Adolph Pictet wrote that the Aryan race was the

“…one destined by Providence to reign one day supreme over the entire earth . . . They were the race of Aryans. …”

The notion of “Aryan” had become, in a few short years, the emblem of European manifest destiny over the world, a signet coined in the language of scholarship which gave Europeans a racial and religious mantle of superiority.[4]

But the people weren’t fooled. Initially

 all attempts to correlate the Aryan language to Aryan race were not only unsuccessful but also absurd”. Even at that time many academics opposed the Aryan invasion theory.[4]

So if Aryan refers to a race, it is not a race in the way we usually think of it.  “Race” to us means people with the same skin color, culture and language.  That is actually ethnicity, though.  Ethnicity means related identity, but race means similar qualities.  And the people with noble character (‘arya’) can be found all over the world.  Maybe they use the same symbols to recognize each other:

Map Showing Distribution of the Swastika -

Map Showing Distribution of the Swastika –

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[1] “Nine Cast Brass Gold Dust Weights, Akan People, Ghana, 16th-18th centuries”.  Michael Blackman, LTD.  Retrieved 10.12.2014 from

[2] “Adinkra:  Kode Emower Ewa”.  Retrieved 10.12.2014 from

[3] R. S. Rattray, Religion and Art in Ashanti (Oxford, 1927), 265.  Retrieved 10.12.2014 from

[4] Kenyatta, Ekowa.  “The Swastika”.  The Stewart Synopsis.  Retrieved 10.12.2014 from

[5] “Swastika Symbol on Akan gold”.  Retrieved 11.12.2014 from

[6] “Kente Cloth:  Ghana’s Ashanti Cultural Heritage to the World’s Fashion Civilization”.  Kwekudee- Trip Down Memory Lane.  3.12.2012.  Retrieved 11.12.2014 from


West-Asian (“European”)-Americans “Superhumanize” African-American Males

Several studies have shown that whites attribute supernatural, extrasensory and magical mental and physical qualities to blacks.  Black children are often seen as years older than their actual age.

magical negro

Darren Wilson’s testimony describing Michael Brown’s almost superhuman strength reflects common, subconscious perceptions about black people in America. [1]  Watch the video here:  Superhumanization Bias on MSNBC

Nietzsche's Supermen?

Nietzsche’s Supermen?

According to a new study by the American Psychological Association, Black children from the ages of 10 are seen as older and less innocent than their White peers.

‘With the average age overestimation for black boys exceeding four-and-a-half years, in some cases, black children may be viewed as adults when they are just 13 years old.’

What does this mean?

It means that Black children are often perceived to be guilty and face police violence if accused of a crime.



NewsOne reports:

“‘The study, published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, sought to examine the extent to which the racial bias exists and how significant the consequences are. Speaking on the report, Phillip Atiba Goff, PhD, explained, ‘Children in most societies are considered to be in a distinct group with characteristics, such as innocence and the need for protection. Our research found that Black boys can be seen as responsible for their actions at an age when White boys still benefit from the assumption that children are essentially innocent.’” [2]


[2] Arceneaux, Michael.  “Study: Both Public, Police View Black Kids As Older, Less Innocent Than Whites”.  NewsOne.  11.3.2014.  Retrieved 7.12.2014 from


The Aryans were NOT a Blonde, Blue-Eyed Master Race

Aryans were Asian Steppe Nomads, not Nordic Warriors

“Far from being blonde-haired, blue-eyed, fair-skinned and homogenous, the “Aryans” were a dark-skinned nomadic Eurasian tribe who spread from Central Europe and Central Asia into Southern Asia, interbreeding with a variety of other peoples. Our knowledge of these “Aryans” is sketchy, and there’s still a lot to be determined about them, both through anthropological and archaeological research. But we can be quite sure that they bore no direct relation to the modern inhabitants of Germany and Scandinavia. And certainly they were no master race.” [1]

Modern Aryan (Brokpa)

Modern Aryan (Brokpa)

“The Aryan/Indo [West Asian] “European” only describes South Eastern [West Asians] “Europeans”, Persians, and people into the Northern part of India. They had a population expansion starting about 10,000 years ago, which spread the Indo [West Asian] “European” languages all over. They only made up a minority of the ancestry in populations North of central [West Asia] “Europe”. Europeans do speak Indo [West Asian] “European” languages, but most of us have a different genetic legacy. Ancient Mesolithic hunter-gatherer in the far North, and from the Western Atlantic coast people in England and the West of [West Asia] “Europe”.” [2]

Myth #1:  The Aryans were blond-haired and blue-eyed

Finally, the Vedic texts reveal that the Indo-Aryans did in fact have black hair:

May thy hairs grow as reeds, may they cluster, black, about thy head! (Atharva Veda 6.137.2)Brahmins have strong black hair (Atharva Veda 6.137.3)

Let him [the Brahmin Priest] kindle the sacrificial fire while his hair is still black. (Dharma-Sutra 1:2)

Modern Aryan

Modern Aryan

And in the Avesta we read:

O Zarathushtra! let not that spell be shown to any one, except by the father to his son, or by the brother to his brother from the same womb, or by the Athravan to his pupil in black hair, devoted to the good law, who, devoted to the good law, holy and brave, stills all the Drujes. (Khordha Avesta.Yashts.4.10)

Myth #2:  Nordic people/Northwest Asians are Aryans

Modern Aryans

Modern Aryans

Day is correct in realizing that the skeletal remains of northern [West Asia] “Europe” cannot be reconciled with a steppe origin [13]. This clearly indicates that Indo-Europeanization of northern [West Asia] “Europe” was not carried out by steppe elements. And, the fair elements among the Celts, Germans and Balts are best sought in the indigenous [West Asian] “European” populations of northern [West Asia] “Europe” who probably developed a marked blondism on their own due to their geographical location. Moreover, the suggestion that the Indo-[West Asian] “European” urheimat included both northern [West Asia] “Europe” and the steppe is contradicted by linguistic concerns (see Mallory [7]) which make it highly probable that Proto-Indo-[West Asian] “European” developed in a relatively constrained (geographical) region.

Myth # 3:  The Aryans Were Technologically Advanced Charioteers

If two populations A and B meet, then A may impose its language on B, if A has larger numbers, or superior technology/organization. Day seems to believe that the Proto-Indo-[West Asians] “Europeans”’ (Aryans’) advantage lay in their possession of horse-related technology. But, this argument fails if we examine the terrain, much of it unsuitable for wheeled vehicles that the Indo-[West Asians] “Europeans” supposedly conquered. In our days, technology (gunpowder and rifles) may be an ally to a numerically small people (e.g., the British) in dominating a large one (e.g., the Indians). As we move back to prehistory, the technological differential between peoples diminishes. It seems unlikely that any people could maintain rule of a numerically very superior people in e.g., the 3rd millennium BC. [3]

How “Aryan” Became Twisted by West Asian Scholars

"Aryan" = Noble or Nordic?

“Aryan” = Noble or Nordic?

““Aryan” originates from the Sanskrit word arya or ariya, which can be observed in a variety of ancient texts, most notably the Vedas – the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature, dating to possibly as early as 1500 BC. It’s been interpreted as having a variety of different meanings – civilized, noble, superior or a person of higher consciousness.

It was used as a term of self-designation by nomadic Indo-Iranian tribes of Indo-[West Asian] “European” descent in the prehistoric period. Indo-[West Asian] “European” refers to an enormous family of several hundred related languages and dialects, from which derive most major tongues spoken in [West Asia] “Europe”, the Iranian plateau and South Asia today. The Indo-Iranians were the easternmost sub-branch of this huge group. They inhabited parts of modern Iran, Afghanistan and India.

The name Iran is in fact a modern cognate of “Aryan,” meaning “lands of the Aryans.” The Behistun Inscription – engraved high on the side of Mount Behistun in the Kermanshah Province of Iran – contains the oldest epigraphically-attested reference to an Iranian language. Dating to the 6th century BC, it describes itself as having been composed “in ariya” – i.e. in Iranian. (Learn more about the Behistun Inscription in this “face-off” vs. the Rosetta Stone).

In 18th century west Asian theory, the Indo-Iranians somehow came to be considered as the forbears of the entire Indo-[West Asian] “European” language group. How did this happen? In short, West Asian scholars began making a number of wildly inaccurate assumptions, innocently in some cases, lazily in others, and with malice in others still.
“Aryan” first entered the western lexicon in the 1700s and 1800s with the translation of the Vedas. At this point it was a harmless linguistic term for describing a certain cultural group. Its connection to an “Aryan race” wasn’t implicit. That shift occurred gradually throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, at the hands of Western, mainly European, academics.

It was German Indo-[West Asianist] “European”-ist scholar Friedrich Schlegel who set this line of reasoning in motion. Writing in 1808, he developed a theory linking arya to the German word ehre, meaning “honour.” He also connected it to early Germanic names containing the element ario, such as the Germanic warrior Ariovistus. Ariovistus was the heroic leader of an alliance of Germanic tribes who, in the 1st century BC, were defeated by Julius Caesar at the Battle of Vosges, as documented in Caesar’s Commentarii de Bello Gallico. ” [1]


[1] Jack, Malcolm.  “From Nomadic Tribesmen to Nazi Icons: Who Were the Aryans?”  24.7.2012.  Red Ice Creations.  Retrieved 4.12.2014 from via

[2] “Will some one tell the white supremacists to stop using the word Aryan incorrectly!”.  17.8.2008.  Mathilda’s Anthropology Blog.  Retrieved 12.4.2014 from

[3] Pontikos, Dienekes. Review of “In Quest of Our Linguistic Ancestors: The Elusive Origins of the Indo-Europeans”. 2004.  Dienekes Award Space- Anthropological Research Page.  Retrieved 12.4.2014 from

origin of aids

Vaccines and HIV/AIDS’ British Origins

Here’s a summary of the common “theory” of the origin of AIDS:

A Haitian fled his native Haiti sometime in the 1960s to escape the dictatorship of Duvalier. His destination? “Africa”. Despite the fact that there has never been a direct flight linking Haiti and “Africa”). Then, somewhere in “Africa”, he catches HIV/AIDS and returns to Haiti, which is still under the Duvalier dictatorship he left to escape. Finally, he invades America to spread the virus.

Sounds about wrong.

The first person to die of AIDS was a pale West Asian (a/k/a “white European”). According to scientific records, the first person to die from AIDS was a 25-year-old sailor named David Carr, of Manchester, England.

Carr died on August 31, 1959, and because the disease that killed him was then unknown, his tissue samples were saved for future analysis.

The “unknown disease” that killed David Carr was reported in The Lancet on October 29, 1960. On July 7, 1990, The Lancet retested those old tissue samples taken from David Carr and reconfirmed that he had died of AIDS.

Plenty of evidence confirms;
1) that contaminated polio vaccines made from Chimp tissue and tested on millions of people have resulted in well documented deaths7

2) That the scientists involved have been caught lying and trying to cover up 8the facts

3) that it is clear that there was every opportunity for HIV to be one of the many contaminations of the Polio Vaccines which colonized Africans were forced to receive

4) that all this evidence of a man-made origin of AIDS have been available to the scientific community all along (including video evidence, which you the reader can now consult online in English.

In Haitian culture we say that “Deceit gallops (ahead) for a hundred years, yet truth catches up to him in a single day”.



human ape

Negroids: A Primitive Race?

It has been claimed repeatedly that Negroids are in terms of homonization level behind Europids(Caucasoids) and Mongolids. This is often justified in terms of their cranial capacity and non-orthognathic jaw shape. In reality, there was a similarly strong intraspecific selection competition within the Negroid race spectrum – compared to Mongolids and Europids.
Negroids have therefore – compared to Europids and Mongolids – Negroid-specific progressive tendencies. However, not all alike, if one compares the Nilotid type (relatively progressive), the Sudanid type (relatively progressive with primitivisms) and the classic Paleanegrid type (relatively primitive and infantile-reduced).

While interestingly the primitive variants have even more archaic gene variants (Paleanegrids, Bambutids, Sanids) than the (relatively to) progressive Negroid forms(Sudanids/Nilotids).

1.Forehead shape

Negroids have one for them typical neotenic-infantile forehead shape(doomed/high). Whereas significantly more on average, Europids have sloping/low foreheads in combination with brow bridge. Similar to early archaic Homo sapiens forms. Regarding the forehead shape, Mongolids are between Negroids and Europids.

Negrid > Mongolid > Europid

head shape

1. Homo neanderthalensis 2. Europid type 3. Mongolid type 4. Negrid type

2.Skin texture

smooth skin

Negroids have a smooth-shiny skin, facial features with soft lines and more subcutaneous fat in the facial area, often despite clear leptosome habitus and low body fat percentage. This is due to intraspecific sexual selection process, and thus a clear derivation from archaic homonids. Whereas these features among Caucasoids and Mongolids are missing or are not very pronounced.

smooth skin2

The most closely related living homonids, chimpanzees have little subcutaneous fat, very relief-rich face, not smooth and shiny skin, etc.


3. Reduction of body hair

body hair

Progressive Negroids (especially Nilotids) are relatively slight hairy compared with Europids.

The less body hair is only partly a adjustment to climatic environmental conditions:

- Adaptation to extreme dry heat among Negroids


- Adaptation to extreme cold among Mongolids, after which very strong growth of beard and body hair – in the context of transpiration and hypothermia – could have been selected negatively.

Primary sexual selection(‘attractive feature’) could be the decisive factor towards hairlessness among progressive Negroids.

4.Lip shape

Thin lips in combination with a wide oral fissure is a primitive feature. Typical of less progressive Europids (especially unreduced Cromagnoids) and Mongolids. Negroids, however, have voluminous lip shape and therefore deviate in a progressive direction.


> Europids (Aurignacoids / reduced Cromagnoids & Taurids/ stronger infantilized Mongolids)

> Europids (unreduced Cromagnoids & Taurids) & less infantilized Mongoloids (despite variability: frequent occurrence of wide oral fissure in combination with thin lips)

5. Better suitability for bipedality

Homo sapiens has still not reached the optimum balance of the head on the spine, the optimal upright gait, and therefore many orthopedic deficits, particularly in old age.

But some race forms in this case are much more harmonious and have an higher hominization level than others. Especially primitive at this point is Homo neanderthalensis, he serves as a perfect example of a primitive body shape and posture in the genus Homo.

Posture and body’s centre of gravity of a chimpanzee and an human being:

Baboon and Homo Sapiens compared with respect to skull-balance. The weight that is needed to keep up the baboon skull is much larger

Nilotid man:

Negroids have in this regard a further hominization advance in comparison to other racial groups. Especially Nilotids have – regarding the way of walking, position of the head and its center of gravity, relative leg length (lower leg-thigh ratio) and posture – reached the top of hominization.

Similarly shortened calf muscles and a specific muscle fiber variant among certain West African Negroids (especially Sudanids/North-Paleanegrids) – important for explosiveness in sprinting – improve the bipediality – a feature of homonids – in comparison to Europids and Mongoloids whom lack these features.

Progressivity of the physique:

- Longer legs (longer lower leg in relation to the thigh)
– Higher body’s centre of gravity
– Shortened calf muscles
– Better positioning of the head

Negroids (especially Nilotids) > South-Aethiopids

> Europids (Aurignacoids) & North-sinid (progressive peak of the Mongolid race)

> Europids (unreduced Taurids & Cromagnoids) & Mongolids

> Europids (reduced Taurids & Cromagnoids)

6. The prominence of the eyeballs

Similarly Negroids differ – in comparison to Europids and Mongoloids – due to a basedowoid eye tendency from archaic Homo sapiens forms. More prominent, not deep set, large eyes were in intraspecific competition a sexual selection advantage among Negroids.

Negroids > Aethiopids > Europids (Aurignacoids & Taurids & reduced Cromagnoids > Mongoloids & Europids (unreduced Cromagnoids)

7.Increased women’s profile WHR (waist-hip ratio)

low sexual dimorphism

Greater sexual dimorphism among Negroids (especially Sudanids) compared to Mongolids and Europids in terms of women’s profile waist-to-hip ratio. Steatopygia is an extreme form of this feature and can be found among Bambutids and Khoisanids.

"Serena Williams"

Interesting study about male preference in relation to women’s profile WHR comparing two different racial-ethnic cultural groups (Hadza men & American men):

This study indicates that the different preference of both groups(Negrid=Hazda versus mainly Europid=American) could be genetically conditioned.



Hidden History: West Africa’s Nok Civilization

There can have been few archaeological discoveries made as a direct result of open-cast metal mining which have given such a revealing and intimate picture of a completely unsuspected yet widespread culture as those made at Nok, which is situated very close indeed to the geographical center of Nigeria.

The discovery was only fully appreciated in 1944, when an exceptionally fine head in Terra cotta was found twenty-five feet deep during tin-mining in the hills close to Jemaa. This was found to bear a striking stylistic resemblance to a small monkey’s head which had been dug up many years before at Nok itself …. The area in which the Nok culture has so far been found, and this we believe may be only a fraction of its actual distribution, has already spread to an area of three hundred miles by one hundred miles lying across the Niger and Benue valleys, mostly north of the confluence ….

[In 1956] we excavated two large cuts, or “paddocks,” in the area reserved for archaeological research at Nok and in the second were successful in finding substantial pieces of trunk wood in situ in the heart of the gray clay, in the youngest deposits in fact which had so far produced figurines. An analysis of these specimens gave the satisfactory date of approximately A.D. 200. Specimens from the gravels below in which figurine material was found gave a date of approximately 900 B.C. … It is now therefore an acceptable hypothesis that the Nok Culture flourished at least during the latter half of the first millennium B.C. and for some centuries into the Christian era. How much later the style persisted it is not yet possible to say, but evidence is now building up to indicating that the art style of the Nok Culture must have survived very much longer ….

There is now every reason to hope that further finds both in the area of the Nok Culture and in more or less dateable deposits in Yorubaland, Benin and elsewhere on the West Coast will confirm the basic homogeneity of so much of West African sculpture and its derivation from a traditional complex going back at least two thousand years, and at the same time will dispose of the widely held hypothesis that the Ife-Benin complex owes its syle and inspiration to origins outside West Africa(B.A.B. Fagg) All the bronzes so far known from Ife (apart from some evidently recent work) are in the naturalistic style, of which far more numerous examples have survived in terra-cotta. A study of the terra-cotta figures reveals stylistic affinities with those of the Nok Culture, already known from a large part of Northern Nigeria, but probably in reality even more widespread. Radio-carbon samples from the type-site suggest that the terra-cotta figures began to be made some time after 900 B.C., probably by a neolithic or early metal-age people; and that the culture may have continued to produce terra-cottas after A.D. 200 …. It looks very much as if the art of Ife developed from that of the Nok….

In Ife there are examples of terra-cottas which are almost certainly post classical, and lead on to the modern Yoruba style. In due time we may hope to find more examples of terra-cottas to illustrate the stages of development from the Nok to the classical Ife style. some of the sites which have produced Nok terra-cottas may be substantially later than the type-site itself,whilst we know that the apogee of the naturalistic style at Ife was not later than the middle of the fourteenth century. The interval between these tow dates represent a crucial phase in the history of most major peoples of Nigeria, to judge by traditions. In the case of the Yoruba, it seems likely that small but influential group of people came into Nigeria during this period and established themselves as rulers over an indigenous iron-using population making Nok terra-cottas ….

Frank Willet informs us that: “As yet there is no direct evidence of who these [newcomers] were, where they came from, when. They seem to have come from the east or the northeast, possibly from Meroe, which collapsed in the early fourth century, or perhaps they came a few centuries later from Zaghawa or from Christian Nubia. The Yoruba migration legends, both those about their origin and those of diffusion within Nigeria, almost certainly refer only to the ruling group. Yoruba Civilization appears therefore to be the result of a small intrusive ruling class, bringing ideas from outside, with a highly artistic indigenous population. T

he resulting social pattern seems to have borne some resemblance to that of the City States of Ancient Greece, but the unique achievement of the Yoruba was to have possessed such an evolved urban civilization without the knowledge of writing.” This ought to be investigated further as to what writing might have been to modern society, so was oral tradition(through the griots and the like) and the drum messaging been the means of writing-pre-writing.