Egypt-Centrism: Afrocentrism’s Hidden Inferiority Complex

Egypt-centrism and Diffusionism in west African historiography

Although Egyptian and African parallels had been noted for over two hundred years (De Brosses 176o; Bowdich 1821) it was only the present century that detected the hand of ancient Egypt behind every African ‘divine Kingship’, behind every African language with syllables superficially resembling ancient Egyptian ones, and behind every burial custom remotely paralleled in ancient Egypt.

This obsession came from those diffusionists who were so impressed by what they saw of ancient Egyptian civilization that they felt it must be the fount and origin of all civilizations; the ancient Egyptians were envisaged as explorers, missionaries, traders, colonists and rulers, bringing the enlightenment of ancient Egypt to a dark world (Smith 1915, 1933; Perry 1923). It is no coincidence that this particular theory of diffusionism emerged during the ascendancy of the French and British Empires in Africa, when western Europeans saw themselves as undertaking a ‘mission civilisatrice’ or what Kipling called ‘the white man’s burden’, of spreading enlightenment to what he called the ‘lesser breeds without the Law’ (Kipling 1940, 323, 329) rather as they pictured the ancient Egyptians having done; certain it is that this particular diffusionist theory greatly appealed to colonial administrators and others, who joined in the hunt for things Egyptian in the territories in which they worked (Delafosse 1900; Johnston 1913; Talbot 1926; Meek 1931; Seligman 1934; Palmer 1936; Wainwright 1949; Jeffreys 1949, 1950; Meyerowitz 1960).

In defence of the proponents of the theory of diffusion from Egypt one must remember that, when they were writing, archaeological knowledge about the other ancient civilizations of the Old World and about surrounding areas was scantier; chronology was much less securely based and it was not appreciated that the civilization of Sumer was older than that of Egypt.

It is somewhat ironic that the advocacy of Egyptian diffusionism on the part of colonial administrators was accompanied and followed by its enthusiastic espousal by African writers (Johnson 1921; Lucas 1948, 1970; Diop 1955, 1960, 1962; Biobaku 1955; Egharevba 1968, ɪ). These diffusionist arguments, however, have been pretty convincingly refuted (Westcott n.d.; Hodgkin n.d.; Parrinder 1956; Mauny 1960; Garnot 1961; Goody 1971, 19; Okediji 1972; Armstrong 1974). There are indeed a few stray pieces of evidence which suggest that sub-Saharan Africa was not completely cut off from Egypt and it behoves archaeologists to be aware of them and to evaluate them. But the emotional attraction of this idea has sometimes outweighed critical judgement and it dies hard (Diop 1973; Obenga 1973); ancient Egypt, which is part of Africa, had a great and glorious civilization, and it gives added lustre to African pride to trace cultural or even physical ancestry to that source.

What does not seem to have been noticed is that the desire to gain some reflected glory from the splendour that was ancient Egypt is almost a tacit admission that ancient Nigerian culture is lacking. But this is not the case; Nigeria has a great deal of ancient culture which arouses the interest and admiration of artists and scholars in all parts of the world. Nigeria possesses her own glories and needs no borrowed light from other cultures. Just as Britain no longer derives her cultural respectability and self-assurance from postulated connections with the Classical and Biblical worlds, so there is no need for Nigeria to try to do the same from supposed origins in ancient Egypt.
Thurstan Shaw (1978). Nigeria: Its Archaeology and Early History. Introduction. Thames and Hudson.  Quoted from Ụ́kpụ́rụ́

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Arya Dharma (The Noble Way) a/k/a Buddhism: An Afro-Islamic Inspiration? (6 of 6)

arya dharma 02

The statues of ancient Buddhas of the East depicted him as having woolly hair- always shown in cornrows, or “peppercorn” texture of small tight curls. These statues also clearly show him to have had Africoid facial features- full nose and lips. In most ancient temples throughout Asia, he is shown as jet Black. In fact, in many ancient temples of Asia and India, statues of the gods and goddesses have Africoid features with woolly hair in the peppercorn style, while some even have dreadlocks. These pictures of Buddha portray him in no uncertain terms as a Negro with kinky, coiled hair, a flat nose and full lips.

Source:  https://selfuni.wordpress.com/2015/09/23/original-african-buddha/

The mid-twentieth century scholar, Hamid Abdul Qadir postulates that the Prophet Dhu’l-Kifl, meaning “the one from Kifl,” mentioned twice in the Quran  as patient and good, refers to Shakyamuni Buddha. Qadir explains that “Kifl” is the Arabicized form of Kapila, short for Kapilavastu. It should be remembered that the consonant ‘p’ is not present in Arabic, and the nearest one to it is ‘fa’. Hence, Kapeel transliterated into Arabic becomes Kifl.

He also proposes that the Qur’anic mention of the fig tree (At-Tin 1-5) refers to Buddha as well, since he attained to enlightenment at the foot of one.

Read more at “The Buddha:  An Islamic Prophet?

Muslim Use of the Swastika

Asiatic Muslims have been using swastikas in calligraphy and architecture for a long time. But is this Islamic?

First of all, the swastika is not anti-Semitic. If all you (think you) know about the swastika is that it was used by National Socialist (“Nazi”) Germany, then be aware of two facts:

  1. The swastika has been used around the world, even Sub-Saharan Africa(!) for thousands of years:
  2. Arabs and Ethiopians (among others) are Semites. They USE the swastika, so it can’t be anti-Semitic:
Ethiopian Orthodox Church http://www.gnosis.us.com/45633/ancienthistorical-swastikas/
Ethiopian Orthodox Church
http://www.gnosis.us.com/45633/ancienthistorical-swastikas/

If that’s not enough to convince you read more about swastika use in Africa here:  Afrikan Swastikas – Knowledge of Self.

Now let’s take a virtual tour the Muslim world, past and present…

Makkah (Mecca)

Makka is Islam’s holiest city.  It is where the Qur-an was revealed.  It houses Masjid al-Haram (The Sacred Place of Prostration) the direction to which all Muslims pray.  Recently, the government currently controlling Makka has overseen the tallest clock tower in the world (apparently overlooking the fact that most Muslims have mobile phones to tell time with).  Believe it or not, that clock, that monument, has swastikas.  Look how the white lines intersect:

The Makkah Clock Tower, Mecca, Saudi Arabia http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=334299&page=571
The Makkah Clock Tower, Mecca, Saudi Arabia
http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=334299&page=571

Persia

Persia is much larger than modern day Iran.  Basically, ‘Persia’ refers to the homeland of Persians, who since ancient times have used the term Aryan (hence, Iran) to describe themselves and their language:

iranic language

We will look at swastika use in what is now Iran and Tajikistan.

Iran

Friday Mosque in Isfahan, Iran http://www.swastika-info.com/
Friday Mosque in Isfahan, Iran
http://www.swastika-info.com/
Ceiling of the Ali Qapu Pavilion in Isfahan, Iran from the 17th century. http://www.proswastika.org/
Ceiling of the Ali Qapu Pavilion in Isfahan, Iran from the 17th century.
http://www.proswastika.org/
Ali’s name in tilework Kufic calligraphy, next to swastikas, Friday Mosque, Yazd http://www.paulstravelblog.com/wp/?m=200805&paged=2
Ali’s name in tilework Kufic calligraphy, next to swastikas, Friday Mosque, Yazd
http://www.paulstravelblog.com/wp/?m=200805&paged=2
The column of Darvazeh Dowlat in Tehran http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread809237/pg7
The column of Darvazeh Dowlat in Tehran
http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread809237/pg7
The column of Darvazeh Dowlat in Tehran http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread809237/pg7
The column of Darvazeh Dowlat in Tehran
http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread809237/pg7
Islamic Azad University, Bandar Abbas, Iran http://www.proswastika.org/
Islamic Azad University, Bandar Abbas, Iran
http://www.proswastika.org/

Tajikistan

Like other post-Soviet countries, Tajikistan has taken a fresh look its history following independence in 1991. The result is a state campaign to promote the notion that the Tajiks as a Aryan nation – and the widespread use of the swastika. (Aryan Myth and Metahistory)

A Tajik emblem that is based on the swastika http://aryan-myth-and-metahistory.blogspot.com/2011/08/tajikistan-aryan-revival-and.html
A Tajik emblem that is based on the swastika
http://aryan-myth-and-metahistory.blogspot.com/2011/08/tajikistan-aryan-revival-and.html

Iraq

"This is...on the wall of Baghdad’s oldest university which is older than Oxford – by a few years." https://maryrussellwriter.wordpress.com/tag/mosque/
“This is…on the wall of Baghdad’s oldest university which is older than Oxford – by a few years.”
https://maryrussellwriter.wordpress.com/tag/mosque/

Turkic Countries

Anatolian Peninsula (Modern Turkey)

This was the center of power of the Uthmani (“Ottoman”) Empire, which ruled over many Muslim territories for centuries.

The Great Mosque of Diyarbakır (Diyarbakır Ulu Camii / Mizgefta Mezin a Amedê), located in Diyarbakır, Turkey, is the oldest and one of the most significant mosques in Anatolia. The mosque is considered by some to be the fifth holiest site in Islam. It can accommodate up to 5,000 worshippers and is famous for hosting four different Islamic traditions. http://svasticross.blogspot.com/
“The Great Mosque of Diyarbakır (Diyarbakır Ulu Camii / Mizgefta Mezin a Amedê), located in Diyarbakır, Turkey, is the oldest and one of the most significant mosques in Anatolia. The mosque is considered by some to be the fifth holiest site in Islam. It can accommodate up to 5,000 worshippers and is famous for hosting four different Islamic traditions.”
http://svasticross.blogspot.com/
A part of the Topkapi Scroll The Topkapi architectural design scroll is probably the best-preserved and oldest scroll of this kind to have survived. Aproximated between 1500 - 1600 made It is of great importance for an understanding of Timurid and Turkmen geometric design principles. The scroll is 29.5 meters long, with 114 drawings, it bears no date and is not signed. The drawings represent geometrical designs, murqanas designs and contain patterns and elements of square kufic. It entered the Ottoman imperial treasury at an unknown date and is now housed at the Topkapi Place Museum in Istanbul, Turkey. http://svasticross.blogspot.com/
A part of the Topkapi Scroll
“The Topkapi architectural design scroll is probably the best-preserved and oldest scroll of this kind to have survived. Aproximated between 1500 – 1600 made
It is of great importance for an understanding of Timurid and Turkmen geometric design principles. The scroll is 29.5 meters long, with 114 drawings, it bears no date and is not signed. The drawings represent geometrical designs, murqanas designs and contain patterns and elements of square kufic. It entered the Ottoman imperial treasury at an unknown date and is now housed at the Topkapi Place Museum in Istanbul, Turkey.”
http://svasticross.blogspot.com/
Sivas, Şifahiye Medresesi, Turkey Sifaiye Medresesi is a medrese built in 1217 in Sivas, Turkey. It bears typical Seljuk features and was built by the Rûm Seljuk Sultan Kaykaus I, who was known for his fondness for the city of Sivas where he spent the large part of his period of reign. The complex consists of a Darüşşifa (Dâr al-Shifâ, literally "house of health", a hospital) and the medrese where medicinal studies were also taught. The complex is also alternatively called under the sultan Izeddin Keykavus I's name whose tomb is located within the compound. http://svasticross.blogspot.com/
Sivas, Şifahiye Medresesi, Turkey
“Sifaiye Medresesi is a medrese built in 1217 in Sivas, Turkey. It bears typical Seljuk features and was built by the Rûm Seljuk Sultan Kaykaus I, who was known for his fondness for the city of Sivas where he spent the large part of his period of reign.
The complex consists of a Darüşşifa (Dâr al-Shifâ, literally “house of health”, a hospital) and the medrese where medicinal studies were also taught. The complex is also alternatively called under the sultan Izeddin Keykavus I’s name whose tomb is located within the compound.”
http://svasticross.blogspot.com/

Uzbekistan

Entrance to the Poi Kalon Mosque, Uzbekistan http://newsoftomorrow.org/esoterisme/chamanisme/olga-kharitidi-le-maitre-des-reves-lucides-au-coeur-de-lasie-une-psychiatre-russe-apprend-comment-guerir-les-esprits-du-trauma/attachment/swastika-kalyan-mosque
Entrance to the Poi Kalon Mosque, Uzbekistan
http://newsoftomorrow.org/esoterisme/chamanisme/olga-kharitidi-le-maitre-des-reves-lucides-au-coeur-de-lasie-une-psychiatre-russe-apprend-comment-guerir-les-esprits-du-trauma/attachment/swastika-kalyan-mosque

Kashgar, China

Though controlled by China, Kashgar is predominately peopled by Muslim Uyghurs,  a Turkic ethnic group living in Eastern and Central Asia.

Mosque in Kashgar, China, near the border of Pakistan. https://solotravelblog.net/swastikas-in-asia/
“Mosque in Kashgar, China, near the border of Pakistan”
https://solotravelblog.net/swastikas-in-asia/

Indian Subcontinent

The Indus River Valley civilization (mostly in modern Pakistan) is where the names ‘India’ and ‘Hindu’ come from.  It is from this civilization that many religions like Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism, famous for their use of the swastika, ultimately originated.

Buddhism
Buddhism

hindu swastika

Sikh Deity Stand (SikhBazaar.com)
Sikh Deity Stand (SikhBazaar.com)
Jainism
Jainism

The Mughal (Mongol) dynasties which ruled India used this symbol in their architecture.  They either adopted its use from locals, or had already been using it.

Sikandra. This is the "buland darwaaza" (great gate) leading to the gardens of the tomb of Akbar, the greatest, ablest, and probably the most enlightened of the Mughal emperors. Early 17th century, local red sandstone with ornate marble inlay (including Koranic calligraphy in letters at least a foot high) http://mise-en-trope.blogspot.com/2011/03/sikandra-and-agra-akbars-tomb-and-taj.html
Sikandra. This is the “buland darwaaza” (great gate) leading to the gardens of the tomb of Akbar, the greatest, ablest, and probably the most enlightened of the Mughal emperors. Early 17th century, local red sandstone with ornate marble inlay (including Koranic calligraphy in letters at least a foot high)
http://mise-en-trope.blogspot.com/2011/03/sikandra-and-agra-akbars-tomb-and-taj.html
“This is where they say Shah Jahan, the man behind the Taj Mahal, was imprisoned BY HIS SON.” http://www.aroundtheworldl.com/2014/06/29/agra-fort-india/
“This is where they say Shah Jahan, the man behind the Taj Mahal, was imprisoned BY HIS SON.”
http://www.aroundtheworldl.com/2014/06/29/agra-fort-india/

Andalus (Modern Iberian Peninsula/Spain)

Andalus was a medieval Muslim cultural domain and territory occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.

Al-Andalus & Christian Kingdoms (wikipedia)
Al-Andalus & Christian Kingdoms (wikipedia)

The fact that Spain was the first [West Asian] country to acquire technical supremacy at the dawn of modern times and for a certain period dominate the world can only be explained by the [Muslim] contribution during the time of its colonization. (Diop, Cheikh Anta, Precolonial Black Africa (Chicago:  Lawrence Hill Books, 1987), p.36)

The Mosque of Cordoba, Andalus (Spain), construction completed in 987 CE. www.proswastika.org
The Mosque of Cordoba, Andalus (Spain), construction completed in 987 CE.
http://www.proswastika.org

Muslim Calligraphy

 "All Sovereignty to Allah", by Fatma Mohammad Abdel Rahim from the United Arab Emirates http://svasticross.blogspot.com/2012/04/swastika-allah.html
“All Sovereignty to Allah”, by Fatma Mohammad Abdel Rahim from the United Arab Emirates
http://svasticross.blogspot.com/2012/04/swastika-allah.html
By Ahmad Zeid http://www.flickr.com/photos/93272306@N05/9762358206
By Ahmad Zeid
http://www.flickr.com/photos/93272306@N05/9762358206
Ahmad Zeid http://farm8.static.flickr.com/7389/9452801696_ac86e59071_m.jpg
Ahmad Zeid
http://farm8.static.flickr.com/7389/9452801696_ac86e59071_m.jpg

As you can see from the calligraphy especially, the swastika is a consequence of lines intersecting at right angles.  Muslims have historically avoided depicting living things in artwork, so geometric patterns are where they focused their creativity.  Perhaps at least some of the swastikas are unintentional apexes that allow uninterrupted patterns.  However, some are obviously a continuation of pre-Islamic use of the swastika by central Asian populations and their diaspora, which includes Arabia.  Which brings us to the next question:

But is using the swastika symbol Islamic?

crescent swastika 3

No, but neither is using the crescent moon and star, the supposed symbol of Islam.

Though the crescent was originally a secular symbol of authority for Muslim rulers, it is now often used to symbolize the Islamic faith. However, the crescent was not a symbol used for Islam by Muhammad or any other early Muslim rulers, as the Islamic religion is, in fact, against appointing “holy symbols” (so that during the early centuries of Islam, Muslim authorities simply didn’t want any geometric symbols to be used to symbolize Islam, in the way that the cross symbolizes Christianity, the menorah was a commonly occurring symbol of Judaism, etc.). This is why early Islamic coins were covered with Arabic writing, but contained no visual symbols.  (wikipedia)

The crescent, like the swastika, is a pre-Islamic symbol.

crescent swastika 2

Unlike the swastika, however, whose origins are debated, the crescent and star have clear polytheist (mushrik/pagan) significance:

The crescent is one of the oldest symbols known to humanity.  Before Islam, the crescent was the symbol of Sassanids and after capturing Persian lands, the crescent has been adopted by Arab Muslims and later by other Muslims. The crescent and star also appears on pre-Islamic coins of South Arabia.

In the 12th century the crescent and star were adopted by the Turks and since then the crescent has been a frequent symbol used by powerful Muslim empires such as the Ottomans and the Mughals. It is a historical symbol of the Turks, associated especially with the Ottoman Empire, but pre-Islamic Turkic nations such as the Göktürks used the crescent and star figure on their coins. (wikipedia)

So it’s no worse to use the swastika on a mosque, or as a Muslim symbol (it obviously can’t be Islamic) than it is to use the crescent.

Can a Pagan Symbol Represent Islam?

Swastikas, crescents, stars, eagles, etc. may or may not be “bad”, but a government that uses a pagan symbol doesn’t seem to be saying they represent Allah as sovereign.  Coincidentally, no government is doing a good job implementing the authority of Allah and his Messenger (sA’a&s).

“And he shares his authority with no one (Qur-an 18.26)

crescent swastika

Decorating Mosques is a Sign of Spiritual Decline and Materialism

“Narrated / Authority of: Anas bin Malik:  The Messenger of Allah (sAaws) said: ‘The Hour will not begin until the people compete in (building) masjids (mosques).’” (Sunan Ibn Majah) (ahadith.co.uk)

‘Umar ordered that the mosque be rebuilt and he said: Protect the people from rain, but beware of using red or yellow (for adornment) and distracting the people.

Anas said: They build mosques and boast about that, but they do not use them for worship except rarely.

Ibn ‘Abbaas said: You are going to adorn (mosques) as the Jews and Christians adorn (their places of worship) (Islam Question & Answer)

——————————

Verily the Safa and Marwa [two small mountains now located in the Masjid al-Haram in Makka] are among the Symbols of Allah. So, if one visits the House in the Season or at other times, there is no blame on him if he should compass them round. If any one obeys his own impulse to good, be sure that God is Thankful and All Knowing (Qur-an 2.158)

And [mention, O Muhammad], when We designated for Abraham the site of the House, [saying], “Do not associate anything with Me and purify My House for those who perform Tawaf and those who stand [in prayer] and those who bow and prostrate.

And proclaim to the people the Hajj [pilgrimage]; they will come to you on foot and on every lean camel; they will come from every distant pass –

That they may witness benefits for themselves and mention the name of Allah on known days over what He has provided for them of [sacrificial] animals. So eat of them and feed the miserable and poor…

Then let them end their untidiness and fulfill their vows and perform Tawaf around the ancient House.

That [is so]. And whoever honors the symbols of Allah – indeed, it is from the piety of hearts. (Qur-an 22 (Suratu-lHajj))

Afrikan Swastika

From the Volta to the Congo to the Nile, from scarification to gold weights to hieroglyphics, the swastika has been used throughout Afriqa for a long time…

When you see hear the word “swastika or see this symbol

swastika

what are the first words that come to your mind?

“Nazis.”

“Hitler.”

“Aryans.”

“Blonde hair and blue eyes.”

Then where would you guess these come from?

gold dust weights akan goldweight ashanti ashanti goldweight

An educated guess would be India.  But no, they are all from Africa.  That’s right Sub-Saharan, “Black” A-F-R-I-C-A.  They are gold dust weights used by the Ashanti, to be more precise.

No, not this Ashanti…

ashanti

These Ashanti:

asantehene

The ones who make kinte cloth…

kinte

They are also called Akan. The Akan occupy a large part of West Africa including parts of Ghana and the Ivory Coast and include many sub-ethnic groups such as the Baule and the Asante (Ashanti). [1]  The Akan were producing them to weigh gold dust which was their currency, thus the name ‘gold weights’.  When used on the gold weight, the swastika was a symbol of currency, expressing power, money, wealth and integrity.  The idea and the implementation of gold-based currency came from the Akan people of modern-day Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana. [5]

 

The swastika is also one of the Akan people’s famous Adinkra symbols.  Look at number 12 below:

adinkra symbol
https://at37.wordpress.com/2012/03/26/symbols-of-power-adinkras-by-s-james-gates/

According to one source, the swastika is referred to by the Akan as a monkey’s foot. [1]  Another source says it is called Kode Emower Ewa (‘talons of the eagle’), represents devotion and service and is shaved on the back of the heads of the Queen Mother’s servants. [2]  Still another source names it Nkotimsefuopua, claiming similarly that certain attendants on the Queen Mother who dressed their hair in this fashion. [3]

The Asante also weave the swastika into their cloth.  See the top left corner below:

adinkra cloth
https://at37.wordpress.com/2012/03/26/symbols-of-power-adinkras-by-s-james-gates/
apremo
Another Adinkra swastika?

The above is a kinte cloth symbol called Apremo-Canon.  It is a symbol of resistance against foreign domination, and superior military strategy.  This motif represents  the superior military strategy with which Akan nations such as the Asante and Akwamu defeated the West Asians who had superior arms. [6]

But how could this be?  How did Africans learn about the swastika?

If your idea of swastika is the symbol of a Nordic (tall, blonde, blue-eyed) race who conquered India from the north before invading West Asia  (“Europe”), that’s a good question.

The idea is not to decouple the swastika symbol and the Aryans.  Rather, one must decouple the Aryan from Nordic, and race from ethnicity.

No signs of a Nordic Aryan invasion here...
No signs of a Nordic Aryan invasion here…

Arya means pure or good in Sanskrit. In the holy Vedas the good people were called Arya.[2]

So “Arya” means, in short, “noble”.  It appears to be an adjective, and can not refer to a group of people.  If it is a noun, it translates to “nobility”  Either way, it refers to the CHARACTER, NOT the APPEARANCE of certain people.  Note: The word “Aryan” does not appear.

So how did the word Aryan come into existence, and how did it become associated with a blonde, blue-eyed master race?

Fredrich Max Muller, a staunch German nationalist and Christian missionary, was Professor of Sanskrit at Oxford labored for years translating the Vedas into English.
In 1851 Muller wrote his first article in English wherein he used the word “Aryan” for the first time in the sense of a race.

Max Muller’s good friend and fellow Indologist Paul then popularized the word “Aryan” in France. Soon many Christian scholars were seized upon by the theory of Aryan race. In 1859 Swiss linguist Adolph Pictet wrote that the Aryan race was the

“…one destined by Providence to reign one day supreme over the entire earth . . . They were the race of Aryans. …”

The notion of “Aryan” had become, in a few short years, the emblem of European manifest destiny over the world, a signet coined in the language of scholarship which gave Europeans a racial and religious mantle of superiority.[4]

But the people weren’t fooled. Initially

 all attempts to correlate the Aryan language to Aryan race were not only unsuccessful but also absurd”. Even at that time many academics opposed the Aryan invasion theory.[4]

So if Aryan refers to a race, it is not a race in the way we usually think of it.  “Race” to us means people with the same skin color, culture and language.  That is actually ethnicity, though.  Ethnicity means related identity, but race means similar qualities.  And the people with noble character (‘arya’) can be found all over the world.  Maybe they use the same symbols to recognize each other:

Map Showing Distribution of the Swastika - http://www.swastika-info.com/en/historical.php
Map Showing Distribution of the Swastika – http://www.swastika-info.com/en/historical.php

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

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[1] “Nine Cast Brass Gold Dust Weights, Akan People, Ghana, 16th-18th centuries”.  Michael Blackman, LTD.  Retrieved 10.12.2014 from http://www.michaelbackmanltd.com/1402.html

[2] “Adinkra:  Kode Emower Ewa”. About.com.  Retrieved 10.12.2014 from http://africanhistory.about.com/library/bl/blfreestencil-AdinkraKode-Emower-Ewa.htm

[3] R. S. Rattray, Religion and Art in Ashanti (Oxford, 1927), 265.  Retrieved 10.12.2014 from https://at37.wordpress.com/2012/03/26/symbols-of-power-adinkras-by-s-james-gates/

[4] Kenyatta, Ekowa.  “The Swastika”.  The Stewart Synopsis.  Retrieved 10.12.2014 from http://www.stewartsynopsis.com/swastika.htm

[5] “Swastika Symbol on Akan gold”.  SwastikaShop.com.  Retrieved 11.12.2014 from http://swastikashop.com/swastika-symbol-akan-gold/

[6] “Kente Cloth:  Ghana’s Ashanti Cultural Heritage to the World’s Fashion Civilization”.  Kwekudee- Trip Down Memory Lane.  3.12.2012.  Retrieved 11.12.2014 from http://kwekudee-tripdownmemorylane.blogspot.com/2012/12/kente-cloth-ghanas-ashanti-cultural.html