Egypt: A picture is worth a thousand words… so here are a thousand pictures

from http://ancient.egyptian.over-blog.com/the-african-history-of-the-nile-valley
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)

 

The Egyptian army;  those are the people who are today classified as "caucasian" by mainstream media/Western scholars by the collusion of modern  Egyptian government and organisations like Unesco

The Egyptian army; those are the people who are today classified as “caucasian” by mainstream media/Western scholars by the collusion of modern Egyptian government and organisations like Unesco

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
It's strange that a White or an Arabs would depict themselves in such way?

It’s strange that a White or an Arabs would depict themselves in such way?

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The Egyptian civilian

The Egyptian civilian

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
In this paint the black color of their hairs was deliberately scratched off

In this paint the black color of their hairs was deliberately scratched off

The two guy down in the middle have their hair color scratched off but they seem to have forgotten the 4 scribes on the right as they keep their original hair texture(Black).

The two guy down in the middle have their hair color scratched off but they seem to have forgotten the 4 scribes on the right as they keep their original hair texture(Black).

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The Egyptian,represent themselves as African, dark skin, kinky hair

The Egyptian,represent themselves as African, dark skin, kinky hair

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
e can see that Black color the the hair is also scratched off

e can see that Black color the the hair is also scratched off

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The usual lifestyle of some nomadic African, that exist even today among certain East African tribes.

The usual lifestyle of some nomadic African, that exist even today among certain East African tribes.

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
Here you can see typical Egyptian people as they were in the past,dark/brown skin, kinky hair people of Africa

Here you can see typical Egyptian people as they were in the past,dark/brown skin, kinky hair people of Africa

All these arguments about the racial background of these ancient Africans are based upon racism/fear or shame I should say or how can a sane person claim people who depicted themselves this way as Arabs or White?

All these arguments about the racial background of these ancient Africans are based upon racism/fear or shame I should say or how can a sane person claim people who depicted themselves this way as Arabs or White?

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
How can the media portray these people as White/Arabs or caucasian? the prove that racism is a sikness.
How can the media portray these people as White/Arabs or caucasian? the prove that racism is a sikness.

How can the media portray these people as White/Arabs or caucasian? the prove that racism is a sikness.

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
it seem they forgot to retouch this statue, it has broader nose and thicker lips than me! but I am not caucasian!

it seem they forgot to retouch this statue, it has broader nose and thicker lips than me! but I am not caucasian!

the Egyptian civil at work, we clearly see how the Egyptian look like, typical African people!

the Egyptian civil at work, we clearly see how the Egyptian look like, typical African people!

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
this is how the Greeks ocular were saying about Egyptian, kinky haired and dark skin people

this is how the Greeks ocular were saying about Egyptian, kinky haired and dark skin people

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
claiming ntive African people with Afro hairs as White blond hair blue eye or Semite ; so sick; look at his eye, how it is African

claiming ntive African people with Afro hairs as White blond hair blue eye or Semite ; so sick; look at his eye, how it is African

This Egyptian scribe show clearly an African character, his face can say a lot about it

This Egyptian scribe show clearly an African character, his face can say a lot about it

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
Another civilian Egyptian , we can see how Egyptian depicted themselves as African people not Arab/Semite or White

Another civilian Egyptian , we can see how Egyptian depicted themselves as African people not Arab/Semite or White

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
nose mutilated

nose mutilated

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
nose mutilated

nose mutilated

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
nose mutilated

nose mutilated

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
nose mutilated

nose mutilated

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The sphinx, seen before his disfigurement

The sphinx, seen before his disfigurement

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
nose missing

nose missing

face completely mutilated

face completely mutilated

nose attaked

nose attaked

nose broken again

nose broken again

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
nose mutilated

nose mutilated

face show sign of attack

face show sign of attack

missing nose
missing nose

missing nose

face destroyed

face destroyed

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose/face mutilated

nose/face mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

face destroyed

face destroyed

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

face mutilated

face mutilated

nose missing

nose missing

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated,face show sign of sarcastic attack

nose mutilated,face show sign of sarcastic attack

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose/face destroyed

nose/face destroyed

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

face destroyed

face destroyed

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

face destroyed

face destroyed

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
nose mutilated

nose mutilated

noses mutilated
noses mutilated

noses mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

face destroyed

face destroyed

This is some of the true Egyptian statue, as you can notice his nose have been also broken off like tons of statues, this is how this how the elites of the Arab rp of Egypt do with the Egyptian statue that portray a Black person: a mere decoration.

This is some of the true Egyptian statue, as you can notice his nose have been also broken off like tons of statues, this is how this how the elites of the Arab rp of Egypt do with the Egyptian statue that portray a Black person: a mere decoration.

Wow! another missing nose African man! is this a coincidence? or these Pharaohs had no nose at all? I didn't know that Caucasian hate their own  pointy noses!

Wow! another missing nose African man! is this a coincidence? or these Pharaohs had no nose at all? I didn’t know that Caucasian hate their own pointy noses!

another one !

another one !

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

face, destroyed

face, destroyed

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
another one! just because they were native Africans, the invaders/conquerors of Egypt desiring to satisfy their obsession wanted to completely rewrite History, to deface the African images in His-story, but the truth never die, and always comes out.

another one! just because they were native Africans, the invaders/conquerors of Egypt desiring to satisfy their obsession wanted to completely rewrite History, to deface the African images in His-story, but the truth never die, and always comes out.

All these pharaohs had broader noses than me, but even an insane Euro-centrist racists won't claim me as Caucasian! Isn't it weird!

All these pharaohs had broader noses than me, but even an insane Euro-centrist racists won’t claim me as Caucasian! Isn’t it weird!

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
nose mutilated

nose mutilated

face attaked

face attaked

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

This is how most of the Egyptian statues are defaced as you can notice in most of these images to hide that pharaohs had broader noses or thicker lips common on certain native Africans

This is how most of the Egyptian statues are defaced as you can notice in most of these images to hide that pharaohs had broader noses or thicker lips common on certain native Africans

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

Why the colors of these these two ladies was taken off ? and the noses retouched?

Why the colors of these these two ladies was taken off ? and the noses retouched?

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
the nose/lips of this African lady have been filed  though her African identity remained visible...This Egyptian Goddess in real life look surely like this Sudanese lady (right)the nose/lips of this African lady have been filed  though her African identity remained visible...This Egyptian Goddess in real life look surely like this Sudanese lady (right)

the nose/lips of this African lady have been filed though her African identity remained visible…This Egyptian Goddess in real life look surely like this Sudanese lady (right)

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
Another statue with the nose/lips destroyed and they claim these pharaohs as Caucasian;if the pharaohs were white or Arabs none of them would be attacked like that. sarcasm,egoism,jealousy and you can see how the  Egyptian statues are used as outside decorations in the Arab republic of Egypt while their museum are full of fake Semite looking statues.

Another statue with the nose/lips destroyed and they claim these pharaohs as Caucasian;if the pharaohs were white or Arabs none of them would be attacked like that. sarcasm,egoism,jealousy and you can see how the Egyptian statues are used as outside decorations in the Arab republic of Egypt while their museum are full of fake Semite looking statues.

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
Even if the mutilated the sphinx, it's show a strong feature of Dinka people of Sudan

Even if the mutilated the sphinx, it’s show a strong feature of Dinka people of Sudan

see, this another example of their desperate attempt to des-Africanze the image these phraraohs

see, this another example of their desperate attempt to des-Africanze the image these phraraohs

An African king (Pharaoh) , his face, body shape itself prove his African origin even if they mutilated his nose also

An African king (Pharaoh) , his face, body shape itself prove his African origin even if they mutilated his nose also

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

See how far jealousy can make human insane, look how this nose was carefully filed

See how far jealousy can make human insane, look how this nose was carefully filed

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

another decoration of the Arab republic parks, the statue of  a native African pharaoh completely defaced

another decoration of the Arab republic parks, the statue of a native African pharaoh completely defaced

the conquerors of Egypt was unable to stand the look of an African aka Black person in a position of strength/majesty/power/royalty  and they insecurity drove them to deface/mutilate the faces of most of the Egyptian statues that display their real origin as Afican

the conquerors of Egypt was unable to stand the look of an African aka Black person in a position of strength/majesty/power/royalty and they insecurity drove them to deface/mutilate the faces of most of the Egyptian statues that display their real origin as Afican

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

another example of this sickness, typical brown color of native African people, this hairstyle is still practiced by Afar / Horomo people of ethiopia

another example of this sickness, typical brown color of native African people, this hairstyle is still practiced by Afar / Horomo people of ethiopia

look how they mutilated this another African pharaohs , they broke their noses and claim them as white. so pathetic

look how they mutilated this another African pharaohs , they broke their noses and claim them as white. so pathetic

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

As usually another broken nose African king

As usually another broken nose African king

nose/lips attaked

nose/lips attaked

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

those are the founder, the true pharaohs of this mighty civilization that the conquerors mutilated tried to humiliate by History can't be changed,their achievements will forever remains their Achievement! and Africans will talk about their History on day

those are the founder, the true pharaohs of this mighty civilization that the conquerors mutilated tried to humiliate by History can’t be changed,their achievements will forever remains their Achievement! and Africans will talk about their History on day

You see, how the Greeks/Persian invaders tried to cover/hide the racial origin of the Pharaohs, people that sculpted themselves as they were : Black people, Africans, this statue is today just a decoration of the parks in the Arab republic of Egypt

You see, how the Greeks/Persian invaders tried to cover/hide the racial origin of the Pharaohs, people that sculpted themselves as they were : Black people, Africans, this statue is today just a decoration of the parks in the Arab republic of Egypt

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

head?

head?

mutilated nose

mutilated nose

This is were most of the African heritages/artifacts end: in Western counties/Europe on the museums and the little African kid get not the chance to see the achievement of some of his ancestors or at lat his people.

This is were most of the African heritages/artifacts end: in Western counties/Europe on the museums and the little African kid get not the chance to see the achievement of some of his ancestors or at lat his people.

noses / lips, mutilated

noses / lips, mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
face attacked

face attacked

face destroyed by intrus

face destroyed by intrus

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
nose mutilated

nose mutilated

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
A Nubian pharaoh, It's sick how they completely separated Nubia from Egypt (racially,historically even culturally...)

A Nubian pharaoh, It’s sick how they completely separated Nubia from Egypt (racially,historically even culturally…)

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
the look of this White man(an Egyptogist or archaeologist surely) show sadness, he is upset by the truth and would like for sure to see his caucasian figure on this statue (then started all their falsifications/lies)

the look of this White man(an Egyptogist or archaeologist surely) show sadness, he is upset by the truth and would like for sure to see his caucasian figure on this statue (then started all their falsifications/lies)

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
face attacked

face attacked

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
mutilated nose

mutilated nose

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
nose mutilated

nose mutilated

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
mutilated nose

mutilated nose

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
nose mutilated

nose mutilated

mutilated nose

mutilated nose

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
mutilated nose/faces

mutilated nose/faces

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
decolred

decolred

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
original colors scratched off
original colors scratched off

original colors scratched off

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
noses/lips mutilated, face destroyed

noses/lips mutilated, face destroyed

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
A true crime against Humanity! keeping the world in Ignorance about reality, to live in a world of lies,fantasies were

A true crime against Humanity! keeping the world in Ignorance about reality, to live in a world of lies,fantasies were

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
So sad

So sad

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
nose mutilated

nose mutilated

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
nose mutilated

nose mutilated

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
nose mutilated

nose mutilated

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
mutilated noses

mutilated noses

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
nose mutilated

nose mutilated

face attacked, destroyed or hidden

face attacked, destroyed or hidden

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
nose mutilated

nose mutilated

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The So called Queen Nerfertiti as the Egyptian see her,This look is very different from the Coptic Caucasian looking model exhibited everywhere in the world.

The So called Queen Nerfertiti as the Egyptian see her,This look is very different from the Coptic Caucasian looking model exhibited everywhere in the world.

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
noses mutilated

noses mutilated

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
mutilated noses

mutilated noses

An egyptian weave and it's box

An egyptian weave and it’s box

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The heritage of African is used as decoration in the Arab republic of Egypt, they put the fake artifacts on their museums and throw the true Egyptian Arts outside as mere decoration

The heritage of African is used as decoration in the Arab republic of Egypt, they put the fake artifacts on their museums and throw the true Egyptian Arts outside as mere decoration

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
nose mutilated

nose mutilated

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
Another African King (pharaoh)'s statue that they mutilated

Another African King (pharaoh)’s statue that they mutilated

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
mutilated nose

mutilated nose

the face of this statue show signs of attack, look how they took off it's nose/mutilate the face, but the native African(Black) origin of this pharaoh is still there.

the face of this statue show signs of attack, look how they took off it’s nose/mutilate the face, but the native African(Black) origin of this pharaoh is still there.

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
Those statues have been completely decapitated so no one will know who were these Pharaohs/queen

Those statues have been completely decapitated so no one will know who were these Pharaohs/queen

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
It's sad what racism/egoism lead people do do, how the Black/Africans have been stolen of their History

It’s sad what racism/egoism lead people do do, how the Black/Africans have been stolen of their History

nose mutilated

nose mutilated

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
We can see how the true color of this statue have been scratched off, the nose/face broken off

We can see how the true color of this statue have been scratched off, the nose/face broken off

Nubian:

Nubian:

Nubian:

Nubian:

Nubian:

Nubian:

Nubian:

Nubian:

Nubian archers

Nubian archers

Nubian:

Nubian:

Nubian:

Nubian:

Nubian:

Nubian:

Nubian

Nubian

Nubian:

Nubian:

Nubian:

Nubian:

Nubian

Nubian

Nubian/ mutilated nose

Nubian/ mutilated nose

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
mutilated nose again!

mutilated nose again!

Another statues with nose mutilated,Why this sadism if they were caucasian?

Another statues with nose mutilated,Why this sadism if they were caucasian?

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
see how most of the statues are nose mutilated, the arguments about the race of Ancient Egyptian is a fake problem completely fabricated, if these racists scientists were sure about Egyptian being non-Black/Africans they wouldn't ask the Africans to prove it.

see how most of the statues are nose mutilated, the arguments about the race of Ancient Egyptian is a fake problem completely fabricated, if these racists scientists were sure about Egyptian being non-Black/Africans they wouldn’t ask the Africans to prove it.

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
Female hunter

Female hunter

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)
mutilated nose

mutilated nose

The African Nile Valley Civilization (Unveiling of a hidden Black/African History)

Do you know, in the whole world a group of people that portray their divinities in another shapes but theirs? haven’t you ever ask yourselves why the Hieroglyphs display most the animals of the African fauns? did you know that the Meroetic civilization is anterior to the Egyptian civilization and keep the highest amount of pyramids with at last 5000 years?

during the decoding of Hieroglyphs by Champollion the young, the westerners discovered that the most ancient civilization worldwide, Egypt, Was governed by Blacks.denying this fact (till today) they settled with the collusion of most of the Egyptologists of that time (Champollion;Figeac) the biggest and the most monstrous falsification of Human History

Why this wish to falsify the Egyptian History?

Is it because of being the first civilization of the world and the origin of the knowledge of Greeks, then the knowledge that lead today’s world (mathematics;sciences;geometries;astronomy etc..); We can’t admit that the Egyptian civilization was Black?

There have always been till nowadays (falsified documentaries broadcast in mass on the TV ) a wish to portray a population seen in decline (toward a predominant logic, a Black Egypt) toward a conclusion that Egypt was populated of Whites or Semites…

Therefore we must know that most of the documentaries broadcasted on the Tv show only mummies of characters that lived just during the period of the Fall of Egypt, and that are not representative of the Egyptian population.

Egypt during that time being populated by a high numbers of White and Semites strangers.The actual inhabitants have nothing to do with the antique Egyptian civilization; their presence date from the 7th century ac (639). During their arrival the Egyptian civilization didn’t exist and this because of the successive invasions of strangers: Persian;Greeks;Romans then the Semites (Arabs).

The true builders of Egypt; those who are the originators of the Pyramids,tombs,temples, Greek knowledge,obelisks,Hieroglyphs ,cosmogony were true Black/Africans; and this because of the approval of the greatest organisations of this world that go so far by paying a huge amount of researchers for they can falsified the result of their discoveries in Egypt.

 

 

 

 

Robert Bauval presents evidence that an advanced black African civilization inhabited the Sahara long before Pharaonic Egypt, and reveals black Africa to be at the genesis of ancient civilization and the human story. The mysterious Nabta Playa ceremonial area and its stone calendar circle and megaliths, and put forward the solid hypothesis that an advanced civilization of black Africans settled in the Sahara long before Pharaonic Egypt existed.

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WATCH: Egyptologist Casually Disusses Cover-Up with Joe Rogan

In just one minute of this video, from 7:34 to 8:34, John Anthony West casually and jokingly discusses covering up an essential truth about ancient Egypt (Kemet), and how such practices are a given in academic and public circles.

Discussion Question for Comments:  Why is such a cover-up taken for granted?  Why is ancient Egypt still significant today?  And why does an African identity affect that?

 

 

What Ethnicity was Muhammad?

Skin color and physical features, especially of the prophets, were a part of early Islamic teachings, so they are still important today.  Much is known about the ethnicity of Prophet Muhammad’s ancestors, and the inmarriage practiced by his clan means we can reliably guess what his was as well.

“Race Doesn’t Matter In Islam.”

This is a popular mantra in the Muslim community.  But is it Islamically sound?

No, for Prophet Muhammad taught his followers extensively about what we use to define ‘race’ today, such as skin color, hair texture, and genealogy.  And, as with all his teachings, he commanded them to convey them to others:

 

Narrated ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr: The Prophet said, “Convey (my teachings) to the people even if it were a single sentence, and tell others the stories of People of Israel (which have been taught to you), for it is not sinful to do so. And whoever tells a lie on me intentionally, will surely take his place in the (Hell) Fire.” (Sahih Bukhari. Hadith 3202)

 

In particular, he taught about the appearance of the prophets:

 

Moses was of brown complexion, straight hair and tall stature as if he was from the people of Az-Zutt.” (Bukhaari Volume 4, Book 55, Number 648)

 

This is a reference to a specific ethnic type with which the listeners would obviously have been familiar.  The same happens in the next narration:

 

The Prophet (Muhammad) said “The prophet Moses was brown, a tall person as if from the people of the tribe of Shanu’a. Jesus was a curly-haired man of moderate height…” (Bukhaari Volume 4, Book 55, Number 608)

 

At times, he even praised the skin color of the person in question:

 

“I saw in my dream a man of brown color the best one can see amongst brown color and his hair was long that it fell between his shoulders. His hair was lank and water was dribbling from his head and he was placing his hands on the shoulders of two men while circumambulating the Kaba. I asked, ‘Who is this?’ They replied, ‘This is Jesus, son of Mary.’” (Prophet Muhammad) Sahih Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 55, Number 649

 

His companions faithfully recorded and related these teachings, as commanded, and even corrected each other about them:

 

No, By Allah, the Prophet did not tell that Jesus was of red complexion but said, “While I was asleep circumambulating the Ka’ba (in my dream), suddenly I saw a man of brown complexion and lank hair walking between two men, and water was dropping from his head. I asked, ‘Who is this?’ The people said, ‘He is the son of Mary.’ Then I looked behind and I saw a red-complexioned, fat, curly-haired man, blind in the right eye which looked like a bulging out grape. I asked, ‘Who is this?’ They replied, ‘He is Ad-Dajjal.’  (Sahih Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 55, Number 650)

 

In Islamic eschatology (end times theology) both Jesus and the Dajjal (Anti-Christ) will appear, so it could be said that skin color was only discussed to allow believers to be able to distinguish the two.  However, this does not explain descriptions of Jesus’ skin color where mention of the Dajjal is absent, nor those of Moses, who does not figure in Islamic eschatology.

 

If skin color and ethnicity were not important in Islam, then the Messenger would not have spoken about them.

That is, unless one wants to claim that Prophet Muhammad spoke idly and vainly to his followers.  But that would be saying that he adopted a type of speech forbidden in the same Quran which he recited to them, which praises him as the best example.  This, would be tantamount to blasphemy.

It has to be accepted, then, that race, specifically the race of the prophets, is a valid and necessary topic.  Claiming otherwise is slanderous and self-contradictory.  Non-Muslim readers can rest assured that studying the ‘race’, ethnicity and appearance of Prophet Muhammad is neither an offense to Muslims, nor Islam.

 

The ethnic make-up and appearance of the prophets is a valid and important topic, and those of the greatest and final prophet all the more so.

 

 

Introduction

Muhammad was a member of the tribe of Quraysh.  The progenitors of this tribe were Ibrahim (Abraham) and Hajr’s (Hagar’s) son Ismail (Ishmael) and his wife from the Arab tribe Jurhum.

 

This paper will alternate between narrative of the amalgamation of these individuals and peoples and exposition of their ethnic types according to contemporary and modern historians and geneticists.  To illustrate, self-depictions of the relevant groups as well as illustrations consistent with the given descriptions will be included as well.

 

 

Ibrahim’s Ethnic Type:  Akkadian = Sumerian + Semitic

 

Ibrahim was born in a house of idolaters in the ancient city of Ur, in the Mesopotamian plains of Babylonia (present-day Iraq). The language that was spoken at the time was Akkadian (wikipedia).  The empire united all the indigenous Akkadian-speaking Semites and the Sumerian speakers for the first time under one rule.

 

 

Sumerian Ethnic Type

The earliest civilization of Mesopotamia was that of the Sumerians. They are designated in the Assyrio-Babylonian inscriptions as the black-heads or black-faced people, and they are shown on the monuments as beardless and with shaven heads. This easily distinguishes them from the Semitic Babylonians, who are shown with beards and long hair. From the myths and traditions of the Babylonians we learn that their culture came originally from the south. Sir Henry Rawlinson concluded from this and other evidence that the first civilized inhabitants of Sumer and Akkad were immigrants from the African Ethiopia. John D. Baldwin, the American Orientalist, on the other hand, claims that since ancient Arabia was also known as Ethiopia, they could have just as well come from that country.  (Jackson 1939)

(The Identity of the Sumerians As Seen In Ancient Art)

 

Semitic Ethnic Type

 

Enter a caption

 

Image of Israelites from the time of the Assyrian Empire

 

Semitic Genetic Marker:  The Cohen Haplotype-

Discovered in 1997 by Jewish scientists, this paternal genetic marker (it is found on the Y-chromosome) has a high frequency among the Jewish (Askenazi and Sephardic) priesthood (Cohanim) and is thought to be a signature of ancient Hebrew ancestry.  The haplotype (CMH) is indeed part of a haplogroup (Hg J) that originated in Black Arabia or Afrabia ca 30 kya (thousand years ago) and in high frequencies is believed to indicate “Semitism.”

Image of Israelites from the time of the Assyrian Empire

 

There was a further “discovery” that the “purest” surviving remnant of the Children of Israel identified by CMH tests is the tribe of Black Jews in India, the Bene Israel and the Black Jews of Cochin, who show a genetic affinity not only to Ethiopians and Yemenis, but also to the tribe of Black Jews in South Africa, the Lemba, whose relation to the ancient Hebrews has also been confirmed by the presence of high frequencies of the CMH. (Muhammad 2010)

 

Bene Israel (India)

 

Ethiopian Jews
Yemeni Jews

 

Lemba Jews (southern Africa)

 

Ibraheem’s Migration to Egypt & Marriage to Hajr

 

Ibrahim’s father or uncle was an idol-maker.  Rejecting this religion, he called him and all their people to Islam, they violently rejected him.  After a miraculous rescue from a bonfire meant to kill him, he fled to Egypt.

 

It should not be a surprise that he went there, because Sumer had historic ties to ancient Egypt (Kemet), so it was a likely place of refuge, because he wouldn’t have been a complete outsider in a place where he had cultural and linguistic ties:

 

“…from their beginnings the Sumerians seem to have been in touch with Egypt. Some of their early texts mention Dilmun, Magan and Meluhha. … Dilmun was the first settlement that was made by the god Enki, who was the founder of Sumerian civilization. … Magan was famous among the Sumerians as a place whence they got diorite and copper, Meluhha as a place whence they got gold. Dilmun has been identified with some place or other in the Persian Gulf, perhaps the Bahrein Islands, perhaps a land on the eastern shore of the Gulf. … In a late inscription of the Assyrians it is said that Magan and Meluhha were the archaic names for Egypt and Ethiopia, the latter being the south-western part of Somaliand that lay opposite.” (The Growth of Civilization, pp. 60–61, 2nd Edition, Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England, 1937, Published by Penguin Books, Ltd.)

 

It was there that he married Hajr, and they soon had a son, Ismail (Ishmael), who was Semitic/Sumerian on his father’s side, and Egyptian on his mother’s.

 

 

Hajr’s Ethnic Type

Hajr was the daughter of Egyptian king and second wife of Abraham she was gifted to prophet Abraham from the king of Egypt. (wikipedia)

 

“It seems certain,” declares Sir E. A. Wallis Budge, “that classical historians and geographers called the whole region from India to Egypt, both countries inclusive, by the name of Ethiopia, and in consequence they regarded all the dark-skinned and black peoples who inhabited it as Ethiopians. Mention is made of Eastern and Western Ethiopians and it is probable that the Easterners were Asiatics and the Westerners Africans.” (History of Ethiopia, Vol. I., Preface, by Sir E. A. Wallis Budge.)

 

Black Egyptians | hide caption A bust of the powerful Queen Tiye, King Tut's grandmother ...:

“Not a few writers,” says he, “like the traveler Volney in the 18th century, have expressed the belief that the ancient Egyptians were Negroes, or at any rate strongly Negroid. In recent times even a writer so discriminating as Ripley usually is has given his adhesion to this view.” (The writers referred to here, are Count Volney, the French Orientalist and Professor William Z. Ripley, of Harvard University, an eminent American Anthropologist.)

nefertiti

 

No people have bequeathed to us so many memorials of its form complexion and physiognomy as the Egyptians. … If we were left to form an opinion on the subject by the description of the Egyptians left by the Greek writers we should conclude that they were, if not Negroes, at least closely akin to the Negro race. That they were much darker in coloring than the neighboring Asiatics; that they had their frizzled either by nature or art; that their lips were thick and projecting, and their limbs slender, rests upon the authority of eye-witnesses who had traveled in the country and who could have had no motive to deceive. … The fullness of the lips seen in the Sphinx of the Pyramids and in the portraits of the kings is characteristic of the Negro. (The Ancient History of the East, pp. 25-26, London, 1881.)

 

In the Biblical genealogies, Cush (Ethiopia) and Mizraim (Egypt) are brothers, while from the former sprang Nimrod (Babylonia.)

Mektaten was the second daughter of six born to the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten and his Wife Nefertiti.:

Bust of an Egyptian princess (Akhenaten:  Prophet of Monotheism? )

 

 

Enter Arabia

 

He left with her and their son Ismaa’eel, and they journeyed and journeyed and journeyed on their riding animal through the desert, all the way south to Makka. You have to drive to Makka to appreciate this. It’s in the middle of a desert, not a sand desert, a volcanic field. There’s nothing there but cooled lava, i.e. a bunch of rocks. It is absolutely barren. Then, when they reached where Allaah had told them to reach, Ibraheem dismounted, left his wife and son- can you imagine how hard this would be?- remounted and started to ride away.

 

“Are you really going to leave me here?”

 

He says nothing.

 

“Are you really going to leave me here?”

 

No reply.

 

“Are you really going to leave me here?”

 

Silence. He doesn’t look back. His horse keeps walking.

 

“Did Allaah tell you to leave me here?”

 

“Yes.”

 

“Then we will be fine.”

 

Hajr, may Allaah have mercy on her, had nothing. She saw nothing. She heard nothing. There was nothing. Just a couple of rocky hills, in the middle of a lava field. But this woman had faith. She put her baby down and ran to the top of a hill to look around.

 

Nothing. Nothing but faith. She ran down that one, and up the other one. Nothing. Hungry (not that I-skipped-lunch-‘cause-I-was-busy feeling, REAL hunger). Thirst. And nothing. She ran back down and up again. Then back down and up again. Until she had run up those hills seven times.

 

Then she saw something. The angel Jibreel (a/k/a Gabriel), Allaah’s strong one. He dug with his heel in the ground, and water began to well out. In other narrations it was the writhing of the baby Ismaa’eel which opened this water source.

 

“Zam! Zam! (Stop! Stop!)” she commanded, fearing the spring of water would run itself onto the ground. She then dug a hole around it, so it would become a well. Had she left it, according to a narration attributed to Muhammad, it would be a river right now.

Hoopoe

 

Soon, the Hud-hud (hoopoe) a bird that flies around a source of water, started circling over their two heads. A tribe of Arabs- Jurhum- took note and followed. They were a noble people, so even thought they could have done away with Hajr and her son, they asked for permission to camp near the miraculous water source. Hajr, a young woman, mother of a suckling child, alone in a wasteland, was fearless. She gave them permission, but denied them any rights to ownership of the well.

 

 

Creation of Quraish, Muhammad’s Tribe

The tribe stayed and taught Ismail Arabic (Arabized him).  Soon he married one of them.  Thus began the tribe of Quraish, started by a Semitic-Sumerian prophet, an Egyptian princess, and the noblest of the Arabs.

 

 

Arab Ethnic Type

 

Medieval Arab genealogists divided Arabs into three groups, including the “Pure Arabs” of South Arabia, descending from Qahtan.  The Qahtanites (Qahtanis) are said to have migrated from the land of Yemen following the destruction of the Ma’rib Dam (sadd Ma’rib).

 

Jurhum (also Banu Jurhum) was a Qahtani tribe in the Arabian peninsula. An old Arab tribe, their historical abode was Yemen before they emigrated to Mecca (wikipedia).

 

Discussion of the Arab ethnic type as it concerns Prophet Muhammad, therefore, should focus on this branch of pure, originally southern Arabs.

 

Bertram Thomas, historian and former Prime Minister of Muscat and Oman, reported in his work ‘The Arabs’:

“The original inhabitants of Arabia…were not the familiar Arabs of our time but a very much darker people.  A proto-negroid belt of mankind stretched across the ancient world from Africa to Malaya.  This belt…(gave) rise to the Hamitic peoples of Africa, to the Dravidian peoples of India, and to an intermediate dark people inhabiting the Arabian peninsula.  (Muhammad 2011)

Modern dark-skinned descendants of ancient Arabians like the Qarra and Mahra of Oman told colonial observers they originated in Africa.

Modern dark-skinned descendants of ancient Arabians like the Qarra and Mahra of Oman told colonial observers they originated in Africa.

 

Al-Mubarrad (d. 898), the leading figure in the Basran grammatical tradition, claimed: “The Arabs used to take pride in their brown and black complexion (al-sumra wa al-sawād) and they had a distaste for a white and fair complexion (al-ḥumra wa al-shaqra), and they used to say that such was the complexion of the non-Arabs.”  (Ibn Abī al-Ḥadīd, Sharḥ nahj al-balāghah, V:56) (Muhammad 2013)

 

Ibn Mandhor (1232-1311 A.D.) says in his book Lisan El-Arab:

سبوطة الشعر هي الغالبة علـى شعور العجم من الروم والفرس. و جُعودة الشعر هي الغالبة علـى شعور العرب

“Non-kinky hair is the kind of hair that most non-Arabs like the Romans and Persians have while kinky hair is the kind of hair that most Arabs have.”

true arabs 2

 

 

(l) Yemenite Bronze, Kingdom of Sheba, 715 CE?; (r) modern Arab youth

(l) Yemenite Bronze, Kingdom of Sheba, 715 CE?; (r) modern Arab youth

 

 

Muhammad’s Ethnicity

 

Now we know that the Quraish were a tribe founded by a Sumerian/Semitic/Egytian man and an Arab woman.  Muhammad, may Allah’s peace and Blessings be upon him, was a member of Banu Hashim, a sub-tribe of Quraish known for their strict endogamy (intramarriage within one’s group).  While this practice was prevalent amongst all the Quraysh- Al-Azmeh relates an instance of Qurayshi women marrying outsiders as being “unusual” (Azmeh 160)- the Banu Hashim were particularly known for it.

 

In his 2009 work “Black Arabia and The African Origin of Islam” Dr. Wesley Muhammad quotes Robert F. Spencer as saying: “It is said that the Quraish explained their short stature and dark skin by the fact that they always carefully adhered to endogamy.”  (Muhamad 2013)

 

Therefore, in the ethnic makeup of Prophet Muhammad, the Sumerian, Semitic, Kemetic and pure Arab strains would have been predominate, with outer admixture making up a negligible proportion.

 

 

Conclusions

Not an Arab?

According to the millenia-old Arab concept of patrilineality, Muhammad was not an Arab.

 

Patrilineality, also known as the male line or agnatic kinship, is a common kinship system in which an individual’s family membership derives from and is traced through his or her father’s lineage. (wikipedia)

 

Besides the Arabic language, patrilineality is what defines one as an Arab.

 

Although the Arab world is geographically vast and features considerable sociocultural diversity, its peoples have in common patrilineal kinship, away of organizing kin relations that places emphasis on agnatic descent groups. (King 2005)

 

Muhammad’s patriline leads to Ismail and Abraham, neither of whom were Arab or even part Arab, so the only way to call him an Arab is to negate what defines an Arab.  Expanding the definition of Arab to include anyone who speaks Arabic is dubious, because anyone today can learn Arabic in a matter of months, but that does not suddenly transform their ethnicity.  Arabic is the language of the Arabs, but speaking Arabic doesn’t make someone an Arab:

By way of illustration, it may be pointed out in this connection that English is spoken at the present day by, among others, the Hong Kong Chinamen, the American Red Indians and negroes, by the natives of Ireland, Wales, Cornwall, and the Scottish Highlands, besides the descendants of the ancient Britons, the Jutes, the Angles, the Saxons, the Norsemen, the Danes, and the Normans in England, but all these peoples cannot be classified in the racial sense simply as Englishmen. (MacKenzie 2013)

Similarly, the varied types of humanity who are Arabic in speech cannot all be regarded as representatives of the original, true and native Arabs.

Therefore, by the typical definitions of Arab-ness, Prophet Muhammad, was musta’rab (Arabized), but he was not an Arab.

However, in an authentic narration he did make the unequivocal statement “I am an Arab,” (Jami at-Tirmidhi) so there is a way of defining Arab than the andro-centric concept of today’s self-styled Arabs.

Prophet Muhammad was not pale-skinned (“white”) or light-skinned (“wheatish”)

The endogamy which was strict among the Quraysh and even stricter among Banu Hashim makes it certain that Prophet Muhammad’s phenotype- ethnic appearance- was close to those of the Akkadians, Egyptians and Pure Arabs, as shown in their own self-depictions and historians’ descriptions, shown and illustrated above.  He was undoubtedly a member of the Ethiopian race- dark brown skin, curly hair and a full nose and lips.

Historian Henry Lammens made clear the the endogamy of the Banu Hashim maintained their phenotype.

  • “les Hāśimites, famille où dominait le sang nègre” (“the Hashimites, the family where Black blood dominated”)
  • the Banū Hāshim are “généralement qualifies de ﻢﺪٲ= couleur foncée” (“generally described as ādam = dark colored”).  (Muhammad 2013)

 

It is argued by many, including the famous biograper Martin Lings, that Prophet Muhammad was “white” but with the ability to tan, i.e. wheatish, in color.  His ancestry makes this an impossibility when the endogamy described is taken into consideration.  Dark-skinned people cannot acquire pale skin without considerable exogamy, and, again, this did not happen in the case of Prophet Muhammad’s ancestors.

 

Arguments to this rebuttal may include narrations (hadith, plural ahadith) which describe the prophet as light-skinned, but there are others which confirm an appearance consistent with the ethnicity of his forebears.  It is beyond the scope of this paper to explore the authenticity and reconciliation of possibly conflicting narration, to which branches of Islamic science are devoted, so they will simply be posted here for any curious readers:

 

Al-Tirmidhī (d. 279/892) in his Jami’ al-Ṣāḥīḥ reports on the authority of the famous Companion of the Prophet, Anas b. Malik:

 

“The Messenger of Allah was of medium stature, neither tall nor short, [with] a beautiful, dark brown-complexioned body (ḥasan al-jism asmar al-lawn). His hair was neither curly nor completely straight and when he walked he leant forward.” (VI:69 no. 1754)

 

Ibn Manzur reports in his Lisān al-arab (s.v. سمر IV:376) that

 

“al-sumra [is] a degree between white (al-bayād) and black (al-aswad), and it is that in the context of human complexions, camels, etc.”

 

According to Ibn Athīr, al-sumra’s ‘blackness’ predominates over its ‘whiteness’ (al-sumra alladhī yaghlibu sawāduhu alā bayādihi), and al-Taftāzānī (d. 792/1390) reports in his al-Tahdhīd:

 

‘al-sumra…is a color inclining to a faint blackness (sawadin khafiyin), as in the description of the Prophet: he was brown complexioned (kāna asmar al-lawn)…” Muhammad 2012)

 

——-

References

 

Al-Azmeh, Aziz.  The Emergence of Islam in Late Antiquity: Allah and his people.  Cambridge University Press.  2014.

 

Jackson, John G. “Ethiopia and the Origin of Civilization” (1939); Retrieved 17.12.2014 from http://2017blackart.wordpress.com/2009/11/01/ethiopia-and-the-origin-of-civilization-by-john-g-jackson/

 

King, Diane E. 2005 Kinship and State: Arab States. In Encyclopedia of Women and Islamic Cultures, vol. II: Family, Law, and Politics. Suad Joseph, ed. Pp. 347-349. Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers.

 

Mackenzie, Donald Alexander.  Indian Myth and Legend.  London:  Gresham Publishing Co., Ltd.  1913.  Retrieved from Indian Myth and Legend: Introduction

 

Muhammad, Wesley.  God’s Black Prophets: Deconstructing the Myth of the White Muhammad of Arabia and Jesus of Jerusalem.  A-Team Publishing.  2010.

 

ibid.  ““His Daddy was Black. His Momma was Black. So…” A Look at Prophet Muhammad’s Lineage”.  2013.  Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/5260656/_His_Daddy_was_Black._His_Momma_was_Black._So_A_Look_at_Prophet_Muhammad_s_Lineage

 

ibid.  “How Did Black Arabs Become White?”.  Black Arabia.  Retrieved from http://www.blackarabia.blogspot.com/2011/09/how-did-black-arabs-become-white.html

 

ibid.  “Muhammad: The Black-skinned Prophet of Black Arabia”.  Black Arabia.  Retrieved from http://blackarabia.blogspot.com/2012/02/muhammad-black-skinned-prophet-of-black.html

 

“Arabs”.  Wikipedia.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arabs

 

 “Abraham in Islam”.  Wikipedia. Abraham in Islam

 

“Banu Hashim”.  Wikipedia.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banu_Hashim

 

“Hagar in Islam”.  Wikipedia. Hagar in Islam

 

“Jurhum”.  Wikipedia.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jurhum

 

“Patrilineality”.  Wikipedia.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patrilineality

 

10 Arguments That Prove Ancient Egyptians Were Black: Atlanta Blackstar

“Even today, a significant number of mainstream Egyptologists, anthropologists, historians and Hollywood moviemakers continue to deny African people’s role in humankind’s first and greatest civilization in ancient Egypt.” –Andre Moore

Click on the evidence that you would like to read about:

1.  Physical Anthropology Evidence

2.  Melanin Dosage Test

3.  Osteological Evidence

4.  Evidence from Blood Types

5.  The Egyptians as They Saw Themselves

6.  Cultural Unity of Egypt With The Rest of Africa

7.  Divine Epithets

8.  Evidence from The Bible

9.  Linguistic Unity with Southern and Western Africa

10.  Testimony of Classical Greek and Roman Historians

BONUS:  DNA Evidence

Click here for more details of Cheikh Anta Diop‘s research.

From Moore, Andre.  “10 Arguments That Prove Ancient Egyptians Were Black”.  Atlanta Blackstar.  25.10.2013

But remember, Kemet Heads:  AFRICA IS BIGGER THAN KEMET!!!

For further proofs about the Ancient Egyptians, read:  “Proof Ancient Egypt Was A Nordic Empire

Proof Ancient Egypt was a Nordic Empire ;)

The ancient Egyptians were white.  Some even claim that they were Nordic.  The mummy of the Pharaoh Ramses II is indisputable proof.

caucasian 1

Afro-centrists aren’t getting around this one.  Only “white” people have these facial features:

caucasian 2

And the winners of “The Ramses II Look-Alike Contest” are…

[drumroll]

ramses lookalile

…all blonde, white, Nordic, Germanic, Teutonic Danish Vikings!

Funny, I don't FEEL Nordic...
Funny, I don’t FEEL Nordic…

See Ramses come face-to-face (literally) with modern northeast African men for a comparison (skip to 4:30):

Egypt (Ta-Merry, Ta-Nehisi, Meroe, Kemet) had Black natives, but it was a crossroads of cultures.  So let’s just play devil’s advocate, and argue that  Ramses was “white”:

American President Barack Obama is “black” (actually half “white”, so technically grey).  If people exhume his remains, and those of his wife and children 2,000 years from now, sequence their genomes and measure their skulls, should they conclude that all Americans throughout its history were “black”? 

Sounds stupid, doesn’t it?

Not every ruler, or person living in Egypt, was originally from Egypt (that’s certainly the case today).  Some dynasties were west Asian, like the Greek Ptolemaic Dynasty.  Persians ruled Egypt from time to time, as did Turkic Muslims and Romans.  And nobody knows where the Hyksos came from, but they were “white”.  The native Egyptians were “black” Africans, but there were “white” people in Egypt (similar to America or Brazil with their natives marginalized to the point of invisibility by a cosmopolitan mix of invaders.)i

Here’s the real, real truth:  You know very little about race, and what you (think you) know doesn’t benefit you:

Common Racial Notions

  1. “Black” people have broad noses, woolly hair and full lips.

caucasian 3

2. “White” people have long, lank hair blond, and blue, green and hazel eyes.

caucasian 4

3.  (East) Asians have “slanted”* eyes.

*epicanthic fold

caucasian 5

By that “logic”, this is a White Black Man…

middle

…and this is a Black White Man…

black- straight hair, thin features

 

And these are…  ??

pale, straight blond hair

Back to the Original Topic

They were Northeast Africans, meaning they typically exhibited dark skin, gracile musculature, wavy to kinky hair, and often had “negroid” facial features:

akhenaten
Akhenaten, Father of Tutankhamen

Amāna- ātpa (Amenhotep III, Amenophis III;
Amāna- ātpa (Amenhotep III, Amenophis III; “Amun is Satisfied”)
Never make the mistake of thinking Egypt was the Origin of knowledge and understanding... It was the last of the African dynasties.
Never make the mistake of thinking Egypt was the Origin of knowledge and understanding… It was the last of the African dynasties.