Africa’s Golden Age

As a whole, Black Africa, in the 15th century, before slave trading, was superior to Europe.  

Timbuktu ranked with Alexandria, Fez, Seville, Cordova and Constantinople as a great centre of learning.  Economically, the textiles of Congo and Guinea were as high quality as those of Europe.  Metal works, of copper in particular, of Katanga and Zambia, and iron works of Sierra Leone, were much superior to those they were made to import by force later from Europe.  In Zimbabwe, Rhodes mercenaries and traffickers found huge constructions, and mines well exploited. Bronze metal in Benin was better quality than the Portuguese. European superiority was only in terms of gun fire .

Dawn of a New Era

Shortly after the adoption of Islam, Kanem rose to be a state of considerable importance and extended its sway over the tribes of the Eastern Sudan to the borders of Egypt and Nubia; the first Muslim king of Kanem is said to have reigned either towards the close of the 11th or the first half of the 12th century (8).

Ibn Battuta gives a good description of the people of Mali under Islam:
‘The Black people possess some admirable qualities. they are seldom unjust, and have greater abhorrence of injustice than any other people. their sultan shows no mercy to anyone who is guilty of the least act of it. There is complete security in their country. Neither traveller nor inhabitant in it has anything to fear from robbers or men of violence.

They are careful to observe the hours of prayer, and assiduous in attending them in congregations, and in bringing up their children to them. On Fridays, if a man does not go early to the mosque, he cannot find a corner to pray in, on account of the crowd. It is a custom of theirs to send each man his boy [to the mosque] with his prayer-mat; the boy spreads it out for his master in a place befitting him [and remains on it] until he comes to the mosque. Their prayer-mats are made of the leaves of a tree resembling a date-palm, but without fruit (9).


Another of their good qualities is their habit of wearing clean white garments on Fridays. Even if a man has nothing but an old worn shirt, he washes it and cleans it, and wears it to the Friday service. yet another is their zeal for learning the Qur’an by heart (10).’

The positive impact Islam had on African society was observed by later Western writers and travellers. Smith notes how:
‘We hear of whole tribes laying aside their devil worship, or immemorial fetish, and springing at a bound, as it were, from the very lowest to one of the highest forms of religious belief. Christian travellers, with every wish to think otherwise, have remarked that the Black person who accepts Islam acquires at once a sense of the dignity of human nature not commonly found even among those who have been brought to accept Christianity (11).’
Smith adds:
‘Nor as to the effects of Islam when first embraced by a Black tribe, can there, when viewed as a whole, be any reasonable doubt. Polytheism disappears almost instantaneously; sorcery, with it attendant evils, gradually dies away; human sacrifice becomes a thing of the past. The general moral elevations is most marked; the natives begin for the first time in their history to dress, and that neatly. Squalid filth is replaced by some approach to personal cleanliness; hospitality becomes a religious duty; drunkenness, instead of the rule becomes a comparatively rare exception. Though polygamy is allowed by the Koran, it is not common in practice…; chastity is looked upon as one of the highest, and becomes, in fact, on of the commoner virtues. It is idleness henceforth that degrades, and industry that elevates, instead of the reverse. Offences are henceforth measured by a written code instead of the arbitrary caprice of a chieftain-a step, as every one will admit, of vast importance in the progress of a tribe (12).’

The Islamic impact is also on the economic and cultural levels. Muslims proved to be excellent traders and came to dominate the commercial world, helping to foster progress in sciences, philosophy and technology wherever they settled. Merchants from Arabia and the Gulf opened up the eastern coasts of Africa, from the Horn to Madagascar, to international trade (13). The rich trading settlements of Sofala, Kilwa and Mogadishu became Africa’s outlets to the Indian Ocean. Along the coast, from the Horn to Madagascar, the original Muslim civilisation developed around the Muslim trading settlements: the Swahili civilisation (14).
Browne, and Englishman, who undertook extensive travels in Central African in the years 1799 and 1806 (15), remarks that, among the idolaters of Sheibon and other places, the only persons he saw wearing decent clothes, or indeed clothing at all, were Muslims; that it was to the introduction of Islam a century and a half before his time that Darfur owed its settled government and the cultivation of its soil; and that the people of Bergoo were remarkable for their zealous attachment to their religion, and read the Qur’an daily. In this summary we hear of the use of decent clothing, and the arts of reading and agriculture, attributed to Islam (16).

Mungo Park, educated as he was for the Scotch Church, and cruelly persecuted as he was throughout his travels by the ‘Moorish banditi’, Smith notes would not be likely to be a friend of Islam, and many of his remarks show a strong bias against it: his testimony, therefore is all the more valuable. His travels lay almost exclusively among Muslims or semi-Muslim tribes, and he found that the Black people were everywhere summoned to prayer by blasts blown through elephants’ tusks. On reahing the Niger, the main object of his wanderings, he found, to his surprise, that Sego, the capital of Bamharra, was a walled town, containing some 30,000 inhabitants, that the houses were square and very often white-washed, and that there were Muslim mosques in every quarter. ‘The view of this extensive city,’ he writes, ‘the numerous canoes upon the river, the crowded population, and the cultivated state of the surrounding country, formed altogether a prospect of civilisation and magnificence which I little expected to find in the bosom of Africa’ (17).
His impression of the women was most favourable. ‘I do not recollect,’ he says, ‘a single instance of hard-heartedness towards me among the women. In all my wandering and wretchedness I found them uniformly kind and compassionate.’ One of the first lessons in which the Mandingo women instructed their children was the practice of truth. (18)

Mungo Park adds: ‘the beverages of the pagan Negroes are beer and mead, of which they frequently drink to excess. The Muslims amongst them drink nothing but water’ (19).
As to education, Mungo Park found schools and active teachers everywhere (20). In Africa, we are assured, at all hands, that the Muslim population has an almost passionate desire for education. Wherever Muslims are numerous, they establish schools themselves; and there are not a few who travel extraordinary distances to secure the best possible education (21).

The Reverend Edward Blyden, a native Black African and Christian missionary, counters those who attack Islam, and says:
‘If those Christians who are so unmeasured in their denunciations of ‘Mohammedanism’ could travel, as I have travelled, through those countries in the interior of West Africa, and witness, as I have witnessed, the vast contrast between the pagan and ‘Mohammedan’ communities- the habitual listlessness of the one, and the activity and growth, physical and mental, of the other; the capricious and unsettled administration of law, or rather the absence of law, in the one, and the tendency to order and regularity in the other; the increasing prevalence of ardent spririts in the one, and the rigid sobriety and conservative abstemiousness of the other- they would cease to regard the ‘Mussulman’ system as an unmitigated evil in the interior of Africa’ (22).

Western Efforts to Block the Progress of African Civilization

The Western slave trade, which reached its peak in the 18th century, shattered not just Muslim communities, but the whole of African society and economy, and permanently. Garaudy and Howitt explain how this disastrous impact in great detail (23). It is not that African society, as generally held in Western writing, was initially backward, thus clearing the conscience of the slave traders from their responsibility in its backwardness, but rather, as a whole, Black Africa, in the 15th century, before slave trading, Garaudy explains was not inferior to Europe (24). Coming from Goa or Egypt, Islam penetrated as far as Chad, and met in Nigeria and old black civilisation, which was remarkable for its art, possibly tributary to Mediterranean classical influences, which it soon adopted (25). The African states of Ghana, Mali and songhay shared in the great age of Islamic civilisation from the 9th to 16th centuries (26). On his return from his pilgrimage to Makkah in 1324, Mansa Musa brought back with him the Muslim poet and architect Es Saheli, who built the famous mosques and learning academies of Timbuktu and Gao (27). Timbuktu ranked with Alexandria, Fez, Seville, Cordova and Constantinople as a great centre of learning (28). Blyden speaks of the story of the Hejazi jurist who sought employment in Timbuktu, but who, finding too many scholars went on to Fez where he found employment more easily. He quotes with relish many honourable appearances of a black skin in Islamic literature, as an encouragement to African learning (29).

Economically, the textiles of Congo and Guinea were as high quality as those of Europe; Nigerian decorated hides and leather were appreciated in Europe, getting to it via North Africa; and metal works, of copper in particular, of Katanga and Zambia, and iron works of Sierra Leone, were much superior to those they were made to import by force later from Europe (30). The Empire of Ghana was a thriving commercial centre, and its large capital, Kumbi Saleh, was an important centre of trade and scholarship, where Islamic theology and history were studied (31). In Zimbabwe, Rhodes mercenaries and traffickers found huge constructions, and mines well exploited. Bronze metal in Benin was better quality than the Portuguese. European superiority was only in terms of gun fire (32).
It was Western Christendom, and above all the slave trade it inflicted on Africa, which destroyed these progresses of the African continent, and made the prosperity of the slave-trading nations (33). In 1540, only 400 Africans were deported, a figure which rose to nearly 300,000 every year in the 18th century (34). Due to losses during capture, transportation, deaths at the plantations, etc., 100 million Africans perished as a result of the slave trade (65).

This article was an excerpt of al-Djazairi, S.E., A Short History of Islam, The Institute of Islamic History, Manchester: 2006
(1) J.S. Trimingham: the Influence of Islam; op cit; p. 53
(2) Ibid; pp. 62-3
(3) Ibid; p. 67
(4) Ibid; p. 68
(5) Ibid; pp. 68-9
(6) on the day of Judgement each person will be held responsible for his deeds. ‘The fate of every man have We bound upon his neck…, neither shall any laden soul be charged with the burden of another’; sura xvii.13, 15, vi 34 [Qur-aan 17.13, 15; 6.34]
(7) J.S. Trimingham: The Influence of Islam; op cit; p. 57
(8) C. H. Becker: Geschichte des ostlichen Sudan; Der Islam; vol 1; Strassburg; 1910; pp. 162-3
(9) Ibn Battuta: Voyages d’Ibn Battuta, Arabic text accompanied by Fr tr by C. Defremery and B.R. Sanguinetti, preface and notes by Vincent Monteil, I-IV, Paris, 1968, repring of the 1854 ed; vol 4; pp. 421-2
(10) Ibn Battuta: Travels in Asia and Africa; tr and selected by H.A.R. Gibb; George Routledge and Sons Ltd; London, 1929; pp. 329-31
(11) R.B. Smith: Mohammed; op cit; p.38
(12) Ibid; pp. 42-3
(13) D.T. Niane: General History of Africa; op cit; p.2
(14) Ibid; p. 3
(15) See Pinkerton: Voyages; vol xv and xvi
(16) In R.B. Smith; Mohammed; op cit; p. 44
(17) Mungo Park’s Traves; Cap I. Nd fin; in R.B. Smith: Mohammed; op cit; p. 45
(18) In R.B. Smith; Mohammed; op cit; p. 46
(19) Mungo Park; Cap VII; in R.B. Smith: Mohammed; op cit; p. 46
(20) In R.B. Smith: Mohammed; p. 47
(21) Ibid; p. 41
(22) Ibid; pp. 50-1
(23) R. Garaudy: Comment l’Homme; op cit. W Howitt: Colonisation an dChristianity. op cit.
(24) R Garaudy; Comment l’Homme; op cit; p. 271
(25) E Perroy: Le Moyen Age, Presses Universitaires de France, 1956; p. 525
(26) D. M. Traboulay: Columbus and Las Casas; University Press of America, New York, London, 1994. p. 69
(27) Ibid; p. 70
(28) G.O. Cox: African Empires and Civilisations; New York; 1974; p. 161
(39) Blyden in N. Daniel: Islam, Europe and Empire; Edinburgh University Press; 1966; p. 314
(30) R. Garaudy: Comment l’Homme; op. cit; p. 271
(31) D.M. Traboulay: Columbus and Las Casas; op cit; p. 69
(32) R. Garaud: Comment l’Homme; op cit; p. 271
(33) E. Williams: Capitalism and Slavery; North Carolina; 1944. Catherine C. Vidrotitch: Villes Africaines; op cit; at p. 1390. M. Craton: Sinews of Empire: A short history of British slavery; Garden City; NY; Doubleday; 1974
(34) R. Garaudy; Comment l’Homme; op cit; p. 275
(35) Ibid.

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Diop: Arab/Islamic Invasion of Africa “A Figment of the Imagination”

Much has been made of Arab invasions of Africa: … in Black Africa they are figments of the imagination. -Cheikh Anta Diop

The unconscious community is confused.  Especially about Islam.  One minute, as Moors, Muslims are the pride of African civilization, giving knowledge to the cave men West Asia (“Europe”) (who had actually been out of caves for MILLENIA, with little things like the Roman Empire to their credit.)  The next minute Muslims are the enemies of African civilization, interrupting the building of pyramids in Kemet (even though it had been colonized by Romans and Persians for CENTURIES before Islam).

So which one is it?  My advice is to take it from someone like the revered scholar Cheikh Anta Diop over a Facebook revolutionary who can drop names but won’t quote a book:

While the Arabs did conquer North Africa by force of arms, they quite peaceably entered [dark brown] Africa: the desert always served as a protective shield. From the time of the initial Umayyad setbacks in the eighth century, no Arab army ever crossed the Sahara in an attempt to conquer Africa, except for the Moroccan War of the sixteenth century. During the period of our study, from the third to the seventeenth centuries [Islam arose in the 7th century], not one conquest was ever launched by way of the Nile: that of the Sudan, accomplished with the help of England, came only in the nineteenth century. Nor was there ever any Arab conquest of Mozambique of any other East African territory. The Arabs in these areas, who became great religious leaders, arrived as everywhere else individually and settled in peacefully; the owe their influence and latter acceptance to spiritual and religious virtues. The Arab conquests dear to sociologist are necessary to their theories but did not exist in reality.  To this day no reliable historical documents substantiate such theories.  (101-102)

No Arabs invaded Sub-Saharan Africa because no Arabs could have.  The African imperial militaries were too strong.

These empires, defended when necessary by hundreds of thousands of warriors, and having their centralized political and administrative organization, were much too powerful for a single traveler, thousands of miles from home, to try any sort of violence against them. (91)

african army

The Empire of Ghana… was defended by two hundred thousand warriors, forty thousand of them archers.  Its power and reputation, renowned as far as Baghdad in the East, were no mere legend:  it was actually a phenomenon attested to by the fact that for 1250 years a succession of Black emperors occupied the throne of a country as vast as all of [West Asia], with no enemy from without nor any internal tensions able to dismember it. (91)

African empires were so strong, that far from invading them, the Arabs asked them for help!

The might of the Empire [of Mali] was such that the Arabs at times called on it for military aid.  Such was the case, according to Khaldun, of El Mamer, who fought the Arabo-Berber tribes from the region or Uargla, in the North Sahara.  He appealed to Kankan Mussa, on the latter’s return from Mecca, to come to his aid militarily. (93)

MossiCavalry

Any Arab traveler to such vast, mighty empires could only have been a subject, or at best, a guest of the ruler.

Contrary to the notions prevailing today, the relationship then existing between [pale-skinned people] and [brown-skinned people] could not have been those of masters to slaves.  (93)   Some of them thus traditionally took on the role of jesters at royal African courts. (95) 

A passage from Ibn Battuta, who visited that very Empire of Mali, clearly reveals the state of mind and the pride of Africans of this period (1352).  The border regions of the Empire, such as Ualata, at the edge of the Sahara, were governed by Black farbas who levied customs duties and other taxes on caravans bringing merchandise into the country.  Upon arrival, the merchants had to clear administrative formalities with them, before being allowed to carry on their trade.  It was in such circumstances that Ibn Battuta, accompanying one of these caravans, met the farba of Ualata, Hussein.

 

Our merchants stood up in his presence and, even though they were close to him, he spoke to them through a third person. This was a mark of the little consideration he had for them and I was so unhappy at this that I regretted bitterly having come to a country whose inhabitants display such bad manners and give evidence of such contempt for [pale-skinned] men.

mansa-musa

 

Ibn Battuta was an eyewitness;  it is difficult to contradict him regarding the feelings and attitudes he attributes to the speaker.  But, if the pride and dignity of the farba are beyond question, the contemptuous intentions attributed to him by Battuta seem to derive from the latter’s ignorance of the proper ceremonials governing receptions and audiences of any chieftain.  As we have already seen in chapter IV, the latter addresses a crowd only through a herald;  this was how the farba must have acted at his own court in Ualata. (93-4)

In actuality, when far from their homeland, the Arabs were often led by their isolation to adapt to the [brown-skinned] African milieu.  Some of them thus traditionally took on the role of jesters at royal African courts.  Though never before emphasized, this aspect of the relations between the two cultures was no less ancient or general.  Khaldun thus relates the story of two Arab courtiers, Abu-Ishac el Toneijen-El-Mamer, who were part of Mansa Musa’s entrourage on his return from Mecca.

musa_2371716b

“We were part of the royal cortège and even outranked the viziers and heads of state.  His Majesty listened with pleasure to the tales we told him and, at each stopping-place, he rewarded us with several kinds of foods and sweets.” (95)

bn

The UNconsciousness community has a hidden inferiority complex.  On the one hand, they claim that “Blacks” are gods, possessors of divine melanin, masters of the universe, and the only true humans.  On the other hand, they claim that every other “race” has been conquering and enslaving “Blacks” all over the globe.  One minute they’re gods, the next minutes they can’t be racist because they can never have enough power to oppress cavemen/devils.  They’ll talk Kemet all day, but how many cats are down to marry their sisters?

I didn’t think so (& I was hoping not!)

You don’t know what you’re talking about.  You’re not thinking.  You’re UNconscious

The UNconscious community, put simply, doesn’t know what it’s talking about.  UNconscious people are addicted to soundbites and Facebook ‘likes’.  They put African Consciousness scholars on Facebook memes, but fail to read their books.  It’s not about facts, but feelings.

For all their factoids, they aren’t bringing anything new, just reactionary Afro-centrism (unconsciousness) that in reality just parrots the arguments of “white” nationalists:  whatever they say, we say the opposite:

  • “White” “Aryans” claimed to be Germanic and Hindu at the same time, now “Black” conscious websites are claiming to Kemetic and Hindu (kundalini, yoga, etc.)
See, we're totally different.
See, we’re totally different.
  • They’re pure blood makes them superior;  our melanin makes us superior.
  • They called us subhuman apes, we call them subhuman neanderthals.
  • They said “race”-mixing is unnatural;  now we say the same.
"Just because we're both racist against mixing "races" doesn't mean we have anything in common."
“Just because we’re both racist against mixing “races” doesn’t mean we have anything in common.”

The list goes on.  “This isn’t an ideology- it’s “defensive racism”:  Adopting the enemy’s values in order to compete against the enemy ie. conceding to play the enemy’s game.

 All that god talk is fine if you like it, but deep down inside all you really wanna do is play victim to your devil.

Africa Was Never Perfect

Your ancestors were probably NOT kings.  The majority of the population in any empire or kingdom is of modest birth, from craftsmen and farmers all the way down to slaves.  You’re more than likely a descendant of one of them.  Go to Africa and tell somebody you’re a king (or king’s descendant).

Here’s some real truth:  The truth about Africa is that it had slaves, it had slave markets, and anyone, including foreigners, including “white” foreigners, could buy.

Slave markets sold Africans to any buyer
REAL research shows that African slave markets sold Africans to any buyer

The Empire [of Ghana] first opened itself to the world-at-large through commerce;  it already enjoyed international repute which would be inherited and extended by the future empires of Mali and Sonhgai.  But domestic slavery at this time was rife in African society:  one could sell his fellow man to another citizen or a foreigner.  Which explains why Berber and Arab merchants, grown rich since settling at Aoudaghast, though still vassals of the Black sovereign, could acquire Black slaves on the open market.  Some individuals in the city owned as many as a thousand slaves. (91)

This shows the peaceful means by which the [pale-skinned] world could possess [brown-skinned] slaves.  It was not through conquest, as has often been asserted.  … (91-92)

All the [paled-skinned] minorities living in Africa might own [brown-skinned] slaves, but slaves and [pale-skinned] masters alike were all subjects of a [brown-skinned] Emperor:  they were all under the same African political power.  No historian worth his salt can permit the obscuring of this politico-social context, so that only the one fact of Black slavery emerges from it. (92)

Admitting Sub-Saharan pre-colonial slavery does not justify the genocidal horrors of the Jewish-led Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade, or of colonial slavery.  Denying it does.  Denying the truth feeds the lie.  So does not knowing it.

No one needs to steal our history if we’re willing to hide it from ourselves.

The UNconscious Community needs to learn to read instead of react.

All quotations from Diop, Cheikh Anta, Precolonial Black Africa.  Chicago:  Lawrence Hill Books.  1987.

A Contented Caste, not Chattel: The Truth About Africans Enslaving Other Africans

Slavery in Africa was part of a united caste system unlike any other in the world.  It does not justify the Jewish-led Trans-Atlantic slave trade.  On the other hand, denying it ignores a valuable model for democracy and peace.

Introduction

Africans enslaved other Africans.

“White” nationalists and supremacists use the fact to try to excuse the genocidal horrors of west Asian enslavement of Africans.

Some “Black” nationalists and Afro-centrists deny it.

Both are wrong, for oversimplifying the issue.  For example, both ignore the fact that for most of human history, most slaves have been “white”.  In fact the very word slave comes from Slav, the name of a “white” west Asian (“European”) people.  There were even “white” slaves in pre-colonial Sub-Saharan (“Black”) Africa.  The first few minutes of this BBC Radio special on Mansa Musa, Emperor of Mali, quote Arab historians who saw them in his court:  Mansa Musa BBC Documentary

The worldwide practice named “slavery” in English existed in many forms.  In west Africa, slaves were part of a caste system, where all castes had rights and privileges over the others.  Far from the horrors of the chattel slavery of the Americas, they formed a contented class that enjoyed power, wealth and freedom of movement.  Slavery was basically a way to incorporate conquered foes into the victor’s society.  It was a matter of mercy, forgiveness, tolerance and progress in the world’s most genetically, phenotypically and linguistically diverse continent.

diversity
There are more languages and genetic diversity in Africa than the rest of the world COMBINED.

This excerpt from Cheikh Anta Diop’s Pre-Colonial Black Africa shows that you can’t look at everything from the eyes of the west Asian.  Too many African diasporans, even ‘conscious’ ones, fall into that trap, failing to see that you can’t produce arguments against the west Asian paradigm from within the west Asian point-of-view.

Cheikh Anta Diop was Director of the Radio Carbon Dating Center at the University of Dakar, Senegal.  His books have reclaimed thousands of years of African history.
Cheikh Anta Diop was Director of the Radio Carbon Dating Center at the University of Dakar, Senegal. His books have reclaimed thousands of years of African history.

Analysis of the Concept of Caste

The originality of the [west African caste] system resides in the fact that the dynamic elements of society, whose discontent might have engendered revolution, are really satisfied with their social condition and do not seek to change it:  a man of so-called “inferior caste” would categorically refuse to enter a so-called “superior” one.  In Africa, it is not rare for members of the lower caste to refuse to enter in to conjugal relations with those of the higher caste, even though the reverse would seem more normal.

The present territory of Senegal will be used here as a model for study:  nevertheless, the conclusions which are drawn from it hold true for the whole of detribalized Sudanese Africa.  In Senegal, society is divided into slaves and freemen, the latter being gor, including both gér and ñéño.

The gér comprise the nobles and freemen with no manual profession other than agriculture, considered a sacred activity.

The ñéño comprise all artisans:  shoemakers, blacksmiths, goldsmiths, etc.  These are hereditary professions.

The djam, or slaves, include the djam-bur, who are slaves of the king’  the djam neg nday, slaves of one’s mother’  and the djam neg bây, slaves of one’s father.

African Caste System:  Know Justice, Know Peace

totems
Same name = same trade, same caste, same totem

The gér formed the superior caste.  But-and herein lay the real originality of the system-unlike the attitude of the nobles toward the bourgeoisie, the lords toward the serfs, or the Brahmans toward the other Indian castes the gér could not materially exploit the lower castes without losing face in the eyes of others, as well as their own.  On the contrary, they were obliged to assist lower caste members in every way possible:  even if less wealthy, they had to “give” to a man of lower caste if so requested.  In exchange the latter had to allow them social precedence.

The specific feature of this system therefore consisted in the fact that the manual laborer, instead of being deprived of the fruits of his labor, as was the artisan or the serf of the Middle Ages, could, on the contrary, add to it wealth given him by the “lord”.

Consequently, if a revolution were to occur, it would be initiated from above and not from below.  But that is not all, as we shall see:  members of all castes including slaves were closely associated to power, as de facto ministers;  which resulted in constitutional monarchies governed by councils of ministers, made up of authentic representatives of all the people.  We can understand from this why there were no revolutions in Africa against the regime, but only against those who administered it poorly, i.e., unworthy princes.

For every caste, advantages and disadvantages, deprivations of rights and compensations balanced out…  it can be understood why Africa’s societies remained relatively stable.

Conditions of the Slaves

Djam-bur: Slaves of the King- Slaves in Name Only

king

In this aristocratic regime, the nobles formed the cavalry of the army (the chivalry).  The infantry was composed of  slaves, former prisoners of war taken from outside the national territory.  The slaves of the king formed the greater part of his forces and in consequence their condition was greatly improved.  They were now slaves in name only…  they shared in the booty after an expedition;  under protection of the king, during periods of unrest, they could even indulge in discreet pillage within the national territory, against the bâ-dolo [“those without power”, the poor peasants]-but never against the artisans who [could]… go directly to the prince… The slaves were commanded by one of their own, the infantry general, who was a pseudo-prince in that he might rule over a fief inhabited by freemen.  Such was the case, in the monarchy of Cayor (Senegal), of the djarâf Bunt Keur, the representative of the slaves within the government and commander-in-chief of the army.  His power and authority were so great that the day of his betrayal brought an end to the kingdom of Cayor.

Djam neg Nday: Slaves of the Mother-  Beloved Family Member

mother

The slave of the mother’s household was the captive of our mother, as opposed to the slave of our father.  He might have been bought on the open market, come from an inheritance, or be a gift.  Once established in the family he became almost an integral part of it;  he was the loyal domestic, respected, feared, and consulted by the children.  Due to the matriarchal and polygamous regime, we feel him closer to us, because he belongs to our mother, than the slave of the father, who is at an equal distance, socially speaking, from all the children of the same father and different mothers.  As can easily be seen, the slave of the father would become the scapegoat for the society.  Therefore, the slave of the mother could not be a revolutionary.

Djam neg Bây:  Slaves of the Father- No Man’s Slave

Polygamy meant the slaves of the father were distant from all, unlike those of the mother.
Polygyny meant the slaves of the father were distant from all, unlike those of the mother.

The slaves of the father’s household, by contrast, considering his anonymous position (our father is everyone’s, so to speak, while our mother is truly our own), will be of no interest to anyone and have no special protection in society.  He may be disposed of without compensation.  However, his condition is not comparable to that of the plebeian of ancient Rome, the thete of Athens, or the sudra of India.  The condition of the sudra was based on a religious significance.  Contact with them was considered impure;  society had been structured without taking their existence into account;  they could not even live in the cities nor participate in religious ceremonies, nor at the outset have a religion of their own…  However, the alienation of the slaves of the father’s household in Africa was great enough, on the moral and material plane, that their minds could be truly revolutionary.  But for reasons connected to the preindustrial nature of Africa, such as the dispersion of the population into villages, for example, they could not effect a revolution.  We must also add that they were really intruders in a hostile society which watched them day and night, and would never have allowed them time to plot a rebellion with their peers.  It made it even less possible for them to acquire economic position and moral and intellectual education, in short, any social strength comparable to that of the bourgeoisie of the West when it overthrew the aristocracy.

——-

bn

For blacks to deny the existence of slavery in Africa is reactionary Afro-centrism that in reality just parrots the arguments of “white” nationalists:  whatever they say, we say the opposite.  This isn’t an ideology- it’s “defensive racism”:  Adopting the enemy’s values in order to compete against the enemy ie. conceding to play the enemy’s game.

wn

To try to conflate African caste slavery with “New World” chattel slavery is a ploy by “white” nationalists to justify their claim that “everybody’s evil but us, and that’s why they want to destroy us”, a word-for-word repeat of the Zionist argument, the same “Jews”/Zionists they claim to oppose.

Is this really what everyone wants?
Is this really what everyone wants?

Quality, not Ethnicity- Unity through Nobility

alHajj Malik ashShabazz

No one is going to get anywhere with either of the three groups.  Common sense and real-life experience make it clear that there are good people and bad people of all ethnic backgrounds.

dymir org
We care where we come from, but we focus on where we’re going.

History is not a Destination:  Ideals Are

The only way forward is to realize, accept and embrace the fact that similar values and qualities matter more than ethnic relatedness.  It’s not about ignoring race:  it’s about embracing noble ideals.

Knowledgeable of our different histories, united around our shared values
Knowledgeable of our different histories, united around our shared values

You may not want to share a future with everyone you share a past with…

Transcend, Unite
This is the way to the future: Transcend, Unite…

MUST-READ!: The Epic of Sundiata (Tale of Mali Empire)

The Epic of Sundiata is an epic poem of the Malinke people and tells the story of the hero Sundiata Keita (died 1255), the founder of the Mali Empire.  It is the basis of the plot of the famous Disney film series “The Lion King.”

Read the full text of The Epic of Sundiata here:  Epic of Sundiata Full Text

(Hint:  This is an epic (i.e. long, think Lord of the Rings).  Save the link so you can read it in parts and go back to it.  Make it a school play.  Summarize it to your kids as a bedtime story.)

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Africa is Bigger than Kemet…