HIDDEN HISTORY: How White Slavery Helped Shape the Modern Arab

“Learn your lineages…” -Prophet Muhammad (s)

“Every king springs from a race of slaves, and every slave had kings among his ancestors.” -Plato

It is reported that the Prophet Mohamed (pbuh) said, (In a dream) I saw myself following a herd of black sheep. Then a group of white sheep came (and mixed with the black sheep) until they (the white sheep) became so many that the black sheep could no longer be seen in the herd of sheep.” Abu Bakr, the companion of the Prophet (pbuh) and the interpreter of dreams, said, “Oh Messenger of Allah. As for the black sheep, they are the Arabs. They will accept Islam and become many. The white sheep are the non-Arab Persians, etc. They will accept Islam and become so many that the Arabs will not be noticed amongst them.” The Prophet Mohamed (pbuh) then said that an angel had interpreted the dream the same way.

Zaid ibn Aslam related that the prophet (SAWS) saw a vision and told his companions about it. He said, “I saw a group of black sheep and a group of white sheep then mixed with the black sheep. I interpreted it to mean that the non-Arab Persians will enter Islam and then share with you your genealogy and your wealth.” The companions became surprised by what he (SAWS) said. Then one said, “The non-Arab Persians will enter our land, Oh Messenger of Allah?!” The Prophet (SAWS) then said, “Yes. By He Who Has my soul in His Hand, if the religion was hanging on the distant star, men from the non-Arab Persians would reach it and the luckiest of them would be the people of Faris.

(Reported in Suyuti, Jalal ad-Deen.  “Tareekh al-Khulafaa (d. 1505). black sheep (http://blackarabia.blogspot.com/2011/07/aryanization-of-islam.html, http://savethetruearabs.blogspot.com/2010/04/black-sheep-white-sheephow-it-all.html)

Do the above narrations and interpretations really prophecy a change in the phenotype (physical appearance) of the people of Arabia?  Do they really imply that today’s Arabs are a foreign people who have overwhelmed the original populace?

Historians seem to think so:

Bertram Thomas, historian and former Prime Minister of Muscat and Oman, reported in his work ‘The Arabs’:
“The original inhabitants of Arabia…were not the familiar Arabs of our time but a very much darker people.  A proto-negroid belt of mankind stretched across the ancient world from Africa to Malaya.  This belt…(gave) rise to the Hamitic peoples of Africa, to the Dravidian peoples of India, and to an intermediate dark people inhabiting the Arabian peninsula.  In the course of time two big migrations of fair-skinned peoples came from the north…to break through and transform the dark belt of man beyond India (and) to drive a wedge between India and Africa…The more virile invaders overcame the dark-skinned peoples, absorbing most of them, driving others southwards…The cultural condition of the newcomers is unknown.  It is unlikely that they were more than wild hordes of adventurous hunters.”
Modern dark-skinned descendants of ancient Arabians like the Qarra and Mahra of Oman told colonial observers they originated in Africa.
Modern dark-skinned descendants of ancient Arabians like the Qarra and Mahra of Oman told colonial observers they originated in Africa.
“(Regarding) [t]he origin of the Arab race…
the first certain fact on which to base our investigations is the ancient and undoubted division of the Arab race into two branches, the ‘Arab’ or pure; and the ‘Mostareb’ or adscititions…
A second fact is, that everything in pro-Islamitic literature and record…concurs in representing the first settlement of the ‘pure’ Arabs as made on the extreme south-western point of the peninsula, near Aden, and then spreading northward and eastward…
A third is the name Himyar, or ‘dusky’…a circumstance pointing, like the former, to African origin.
A fourth is the Himyaritic language…(The preserved words) are African in character, often in identity. Indeed, the dialect commonly used along the south-eastern coast hardly differs from that used by the (Somali) Africans on the opposite shore…
Fifthly, it is remarkable that where the grammar of the Arabic, now spoken by the ‘pure’ Arabs, differs from that of the north, it approaches to or coincides with the Abyssinian…
Sixthly, the pre-Islamitic institutions of Yemen and its allied provinces-its monarchies, courts, armies, and serfs-bear a marked resemblance to the historical Africao-Egyptian type, even to modern Abyssinian.
Seventhly, the physical conformation of the pure-blooded Arab inhabitants of Yemen, Hadramaut, Oman, and the adjoining districts-the shape and size of head, the slenderness of the lower limbs, the comparative scantiness of hair, and other particulars-point in an African rather than an Asiatic direction.
Eighthly, the general habits  of the people,-given to sedentary rather than nomad occupations, fond of village life, of society, of dance and music; good cultivators of the soil, tolerable traders, moderate artisans, but averse to pastoral pursuits-have much more in common with those of the inhabitants of the African than with those of the western Asiatic continent.
Lastly, the extreme facility of marriage which exists in all classes of the southern Arabs with the African races; the fecundity of such unions; and the slightness or even absence of any caste feeling between the dusky ‘pure’ Arab and the still darker native of modern Africa…may be regarded as pointing in the direction of a community of origin.”
(The Encyclopedia Britanica [9th Edition; 1:245-46 s.v. Arabia) (http://blackarabia.blogspot.com/2011/09/were-black-arabs-who-founded-islam.html)
The dark-skinned South Arabian today is short and “extremely round-headed (brachycephalic)” but he was no doubt originally much taller and dolichocephalic (long-headed) like the so-called Hamites of East Africa.
In the 13th century CE the Muslim traveler Ibn al-Mujāwir described the Mahra as “tall, handsome folk” in his Tārīkh al-mustabsir, 271.1.17 and early pre-Christian skulls found in Hadramawt were markedly dolichocephalic.
It has been suggested that the ‘definite change’ in the racial constitution of the people of Hadramawt resulted from the invasion and inbreeding of brachycephalic whites such as Armenoids or Persians.
Henry Field suggested that Arabia’s current ethnography is the result of the mixing of two distinct basal stocks: The dolichocephalic (long-headed), dark-skinned Mediteranean/Eur-African and the brachycephalic (round-headed) fair-skinned Armenoid. See his “Ancient and Modern Inhabitants of Arabia,” The Open Court 46 (1932): 854 [art.=847-869].
Dolichocephalic (
East African with Dolichocephalic (“long-headed”) face and head type
Armenoid Kurd with Brachycephalic (
Armenoid Kurd with Brachycephalic (“round-headed”) head and fac

These findings are corroborated by Persian sources describing their first impression of their Arab Muslim conquerors.

“When Fredon (mythical hero) came, they (the black people) fled from the lands of Iran and settled on the coast of the sea. Now, through the invasion of the Arabs, they (the Zing-i-Siak posht (i.e. the black skinned negroes)) are again diffused through the country of Iran.”

(Bundahishn (Creation of the Origins)- A Zoroastrian text)

[Note: in these last sentences allusion is made to the Blackness of both the original inhabitants of Iran, and of the Arabs.]

iranian women

You’re saying that the real Arabs are Black?!  What do these historians know anyway?  They’re not Arab or Muslim.  They’re colonialists and Orientalists out to distort Islamic history.

True.  Who better to ask than the Arabs themselves?  How did the Arab historians, grammarians, linguists and pre-Islamic poets describe themselves?  Let’s see:

  “Red (al-hamra’) refers to non-Arabs due to their fair complexion which predominates amongthem. And the Arabs used to say about the non-Arabs with whom white skin was characteristic, such as the Romans, Persians, and their neighbors: ‘They are red-skinned (al-hamra’)…” al-hamra’ means the Persians and Romans…And the Arabs attribute white skin to the slaves.

(Ibn Manzur [Lisan al-arab IV: 209, 210]) http://blackarabia.blogspot.com/2011/09/in-islam-does-color-of-prophets-matter.html

Couldn't many
Couldn’t many “white” people be more accurately described as “red”?

Al-Mubarrad (d. 898), the leading figure in the Basran grammatical tradition, claimed: “The Arabs used to take pride in their brown and black complexion (al-sumra wa al-sawād) and they had a distaste for a white and fair complexion (al-umra wa al-shaqra), and they used to say that such was the complexion of the non-Arabs.”

Ibn Abī al-Ḥadīd, Shar nahj al-balāghah, V:56. http://www.blackarabia.blogspot.com/2013/04/his-daddy-was-black-his-momma-was-black.html

Lisan El-Arab (an old Arabic dictionary) mentions Shamar’s explanation of the hadiths that say that the prophet Mohamed (pbuh) said that he was sent to the blacks and the reds. Shamar explains the hadiths as follows:

قال شمر: يعنـي العرب والعجم والغالب علـى أَلوان العرب السُّمرة والأُدْمَة وعلـى أَلوان العجم البـياض والـحمرة،

“He means (by the blacks and the reds) the Arabs and the non-Arabs and the complexion of most Arabs is brown and jet-black and the complexion of most non-Arabs is white and red.”

Hmm... Let's think about that.
Hmm… Let’s think about that.

Shams El-Din Mohamed ibn Ahmed ibn Othman El-Dhahabi (died1374 A.D.) explains the hadith that mentions that a man was “red-skinned as if he was one of the slaves” as follows:

يريد ألقائل أنه في لون ألموالي ألذين سبوا من نصارى ألشام وألروم و ألعجم

“The speaker means that the man was the color of the slaves who were captured from the Christians of Syria and from the Romans and the Persians.”

Thus, it was common for the Arabs of the past to describe a light-skinned person as having the color of the slaves. This is a known fact.   Ibn Mandhor (1232-1311 A.D.) says in his book Lisan El-Arab:

سبوطة الشعر هي الغالبة علـى شعور العجم من الروم والفرس. و جُعودة الشعر هي الغالبة علـى شعور العرب

“Non-kinky hair is the kind of hair that most non-Arabs like the Romans and Persians have while kinky hair is the kind of hair that most Arabs have.”

lank hair
Woman with lank hair
true arabs 2
Arabs with different grades of kinky hair

The Arabs of the past also used the word green to mean black. El-Fadl ibn El-Abbas ibn ‘Utba El-Lahabi said:

وأَنا الأَخْضَرُ، من يَعْرِفُنـي؟ أَخْضَرُ الـجِلْدَةِ فـي بـيتِ العَرَبْ

I am the green one. Who knows me? My skin is green. I am from the family of the Arabs.

Bronze is a copper alloy (combination of copper and tin) and when exposed to air and moisture, it will develop a greenish layer of build-up on its dark brown surface. Hence the association of green with dark-brown skin.
Bronze is a copper alloy (combination of copper and tin) and when exposed to air and moisture, it will develop a greenish layer of build-up on its dark brown surface. Hence the association of green with dark-brown skin.

Ibn Mandhor, the author of Lisan El-Arab says this about the verse:

يقول: أَنا خالص لأَن أَلوان العرب السمرة

He says that he is a pure Arab because the color of the Arabs is brown (dark).”

In Lisan El-Arab, Ibn Mandhor also quotes the author of El-Tahdhib, Saad El-Din Masud ibn Umar El-Taftaazaani (1312-1389 A.D.) as saying the following about the verse:

فـي هذا البـيت قولان: أَحدهما أَنه أَراد أَسود الـجلدة؛ قال: قاله أَبو طالب النـحوي، وقـيل: أَراد أَنه من خالص العرب وصميمهم لأَن الغالب علـى أَلوان العرب الأُدْمَةُ،

There are two sayings about this verse. One is that he meant that he had black skin. This is what Abu Talib El-Nahwi said. It is also said that he meant that he is a pure unmixed Arab because most Arabs are black-skinned.”

Abdella ibn Berry (1106-1187 A.D.), the “King of the Grammarians” as he was called, said the following about the verse:

قال ابن بري: نسب الـجوهري هذا البـيت للهبـي، وهو الفضل بن العباس بن عُتْبَةَ بن أَبـي لَهَبٍ، وأَراد بالـخضرة سمرة لونه، وإِنما يريد بذلك خـلوص نسبه وأَنه عربـي مـحض، لأَن العرب تصف أَلوانها بالسواد وتصف أَلوان العجم بالـحمرة. وفـي الـحديث: بُعثت إِلـى الأَحمر والأَسود؛ وهذا الـمعنى بعينه هو الذي أَراده مسكين الدارمي فـي قوله أَنا مسكِينٌ لـمن يَعْرِفُنـي، لَوْنِـي السُّمْرَةُ أَلوانُ العَرَبْ

“El-Jawhari attributed this verse to El-Lahabi and he is El-Fadl ibn El-Abbas ibn ‘Utba ibn Abi Lahab and he meant by green the brownness (darkness) of his complexion and he meant by that the purity of his genealogy and that he was an unmixed Arab because the Arabs describe their color as black and they describe the color of the non-Arabs as red. Like the hadith says, ‘I was sent to the red and the black. And this is exactly what Miskeen El-Darimi meant when he said: ‘I am Miskeen, for those who know me. My color is brown (dark), the color of the Arabs’”.

Ibn Mandhor says in his book Lisan El-Arab:

والعرب إِذا قالوا: فلان أَبـيض وفلانة بـيضاء فمعناه الكرم فـي الأَخلاق لا لون الـخـلقة، وإِذا قالوا: فلان أَحمر وفلانة حمراء عنوا بـياض اللون؛

“When the Arabs said that a man or a woman was ‘white’, they meant that the person was honorable. They weren’t talking about his/her complexion. When they (the Arabs) said that a man or a woman was ‘red’, they meant that his/her complexion was white.

The famous, old Arabic dictionary Lisan El Arab also quotes the author of El-Tahdhib, Saad El-Din Masud ibn Umar El-Taftaazaani (1312-1389 A.D.) as saying:

التهذيب: إِذا قالت العرب فلان أَبْـيَضُ وفلانة بَـيْضاء فالـمعنى نَقاء العِرْض من الدنَس والعيوب… لا يريدون به بَـياضَ اللون ولكنهم يريدون الـمدح بالكرم ونَقاءِ العِرْض من العيوب، وإِذا قالوا: فلان أَبْـيَض الوجه وفلانة بَـيْضاءُ الوجه أَرادوا نقاءَ اللون من الكَلَفِ والسوادِ الشائن

“When the Arabs said that a man or a woman was white, they meant that the person had a faultless honor…they didn’t mean white skin. What they meant by this was to praise the person for his/her generosity and faultless honor. When they said that a man or woman had a white face, they meant that the person had a complexion free of blemishes and free of an unattractive blackness.”

“White” means a glowing complexion, not a pale skin color.


Whatever.  If the original Arabs were black, then how do you explain the predominance of light brown and white Arabs of today?

There are different ways that non-Arabs changed the dark-skinned, Negroid/Dravidian appearance of Arabia and the Middle East:

1.  Intermarriage between non-Arab converts and slaves with Arabs.

“increasing intermarriage (between Arabs and non-Arabs) served to submerge the original distinctions, and increasing numbers of the conquered, having adopted the religion and language of the conquerors, took to assuming the identity as if Arabs themselves” (Segal 2001:22)

“In one important way … (the second caliph) Omar was unable to prevent the Moslems from mingling with the subject peoples … Since they were forbidden to own land, they used their wealth (from booty) chiefly to buy women … All the children born of these unions – and there were many thousands of them – called themselves Arabs, in order to identify with the ruling class. When they grew up and married, their offspring in turn called themselves Arabs. Thus it came about that the people of the Moslem world, many of them without a drop of Arab blood in their veins, became known as Arabs.”Such ‘conversion to Arabism’ is illustrated by the words of the Iranian poet Bashshar b. Barb (d. 783-4), who responded to the caliph al-Mahdi’s question, “Of whom do you reckon yourself, Bashshar”: “As for my language and dress, they are Arab; but as for my origin, it is non-Arab (ajam.)”” (Suskind 1972:37)

Ninth century poet Abu Al-Hasan Ali ibn Al-Abbas ibn Jurayj, known as Ibn Al-Rumi, wrote a long poem to the Abbasids blaming them for the way that they treated the family of the Prophet Mohamed (SAWS). It should be understood that at that time, the Abbasids had become very mixed with the Romans, Greeks, and Persians. Here is part of what Ibn Al-Rumi said in his famous poem called Al-Jeemia:

  “You insulted them (the family of the Prophet Mohamed) because of their blackness while there are still pure-blooded black-skinned Arabs. However, you are blue (eyed) – the Romans have embellished your faces with their color.”

Blue-eyed Syrian (Syria was conquered by Muslims from Rome.)
Blue-eyed Syrian (Syria was conquered by Muslims from Rome.)

2.  Assimilation (Arabization) and Empowerment of Non-Arabs

In the passage quoted below al-Maqrīzī discusses the influence on Islamic tradition of the Abbasid caliph al-Maʿmūn (reigned 813-833) and his successors al-Muʿtaṣim (r. 833-842), al-Mutawakkil (r. 847-861) and al-Mustaʿīn (r. 862-866).     

“This fellow al-Maʿmūn …left one of the worst possible reputations in the whole history of Islam. This arose from the fact that he had books on philosophy translated into Arabic, to such a pitch that heretics and deviationists used them to pervert Islam and to trick the Muslims…He removed from the pay-registers the Arabs, the Messenger of God’s people, the race through whose agency God had established the religion of Islam…In their place, he relied on the Turks. He abandoned Arab dress and clothing, put a crown on his head and wore the dress of the Persians, that race which God had sent his prophet Muhammad to slay and to combat. With al-Muʿtaṣim, and through his deliberate agency, the rule of the Arabs came to an end; henceforth, during his reign and under his political regime, the Turks, upon whom the Messenger of God vowed to make war, assumed power. After him, they (viz. the Turks) secured an ascendency in all the lands. God gave the Turks dominion over al-Muʿtaṣim’s son, Jaʿfar al-Mutawakkil, so that they eventually murdered him. They also murdered al-Muʿtaṣim’s grandson, Aḥmad al-Mustaʿīn. They treated the religion of God as a plaything and established a reign of terror throughout all the provinces of the caliphate.”


Slave girls were favored as concubines, and certain of the wives of ʿAbbasid caliphs who gave birth to princes and future caliphs, being of the status of omm walad, are mentioned as being Iranian, e.g., Marājel, the concubine of Hārūn-al-Rašīd, said to be from Bāḏḡīs in northwestern Afghanistan, and the mother of the future caliph al-Maʾmūn, born in 170/787, and also Māreda, born in Kūfa but of Sogdian stock, slave of Hārūn al-Rašīd, who bore him the future caliph al-Moʿtaṣem, born in 179/795 or 180/796.


Girl from Rasht, Gilan province, Iran (formerly Persia)
Girl from Rasht, Gilan province, Iran (formerly Persia)
Uyghur child (Turkic ethnic group in Central Asia)
Uyghur child (Turkic ethnic group in Central Asia)

3.  The changes the last two brought are minor in comparison to the next one.  And this one’s going to be a huge shocker, because it’s a bit of covered-up history:  

There was a massive white slave trade between Europe, Central Asia and the Middle that lasted over 1,000 years. This brought an enormous number of white Western and Eastern Europeans into the Middle East.

(The focus on African slaves in Arabia only came after access to white slave trade routes was lost.)

“In the Viking era starting c. 793, the Norse raiders often captured and enslaved militarily weaker peoples they encountered.  In the Nordic countries the slaves were called thralls (Old Norse: þræll)  The thralls were mostly from Western Europe [i.e. Far West Asia], among them many Franks, Anglo-Saxons and Celts…  There is evidence of German, Baltic, Slavic and Latin slaves as well.  The slave trade was one of the pillars of Norse commerce during the 6th through 11th centuries.”

serfs “Slavery during the Early Middle Ages had several distinct sources. The Vikings raided across Europe, though their slave raids were the most destructive in the British Isles and Eastern Europe.  While the Vikings kept some slaves for themselves as servants, known as thralls, most people captured by the Vikings would be sold on the Byzantine or Islamic markets.  In the West the targets of Viking slavery were primarily English, Irish, and Scottish, while in the East they were mainly Slavs.  The Viking slave trade slowly ended in the 1000s…”

“The Middle Ages form 1100 to 1500 saw a continuation of the European Slave trade, though with a shift form the Western Mediterranean Islamic nations (Andalusian Spain, modern day Morocco) to the Eastern, as Venice and Genoa, in firm control of the Eastern Mediterranean from the 12th century and the Black Sea from the 13th century sold both Slavic and Baltic slaves, as well as Georgians, Turks and other ethnic groups of the Black Sea and Caucasus, to the Muslim nations of the Middle East.  The sale of European slaves by Europeans slowly ended as the Slavic and Baltic ethnic groups Christianized by the Late Middle Ages.  European slaves in the Islamic World would, however, continue into the Modern time period as Muslim pirates, primarily Algerians, with the support of the Ottoman Empire, raided European coasts and shipping form the 16th to the 19th centuries…” white slave

“Genoese merchants organized the slave trade from the Crimea to Mamluk Egypt.”

“For a long time [from declaring independence in1441] until the early 18th century, the [Crimean] khanate maintained a massive slave trade with the Ottoman Empire and the Middle East.  In a process called the “harvesting of the steppe”, they enslaved many Slavic peasants.”

“The Byzantine-Ottoman wars [in or near modern Turkey] and the Ottoman wars in Europe brought large numbers of Christian slaves into the Islamic world too.”

Asaolu, Richard Oluseyi.  Slavery.  PediaPress.  pp 4-7. http://books.google.com.sa/books?id=YTXuW0zptegC&dq=Asaolu,+Richard+Oluseyi+slavery&source=gbs_navlinks_s white slavery 07

In early Islamic times, parts of [Arab-ruled] Iran itself remained unislamized, and these infidel regions could be raided for slaves. This was the case with Daylam in northwestern Iran up to the time of the appearance there of the ʿAlid dāʿī Ḥasan b. Zayd b. Moḥammad (second half of the 3rd/9th century); while slaves were captured from the mountainous region of Ḡūr in central Afghanistan, a pagan enclave there till the early Ghaznavid period.

Slaves came into the Iranian world as captives of war from the Arab campaigns in the Caucasus against the Ḵazars and from the campaigns in central Asia against the local Iranian peoples and the Turks of the steppes beyond, from the end of the lst/7th century onward. Thus Naršaḵī  mentions how in 87/706 the Arab governor Qotayba b. Moslem slew all the males in the town of Baykand in Sogdia and enslaved all the women and children.


From early in the Abbasid period the caliphs instituted a tradition of forming army contingents composed of slaves, mostly taken as captives in the course of frontier wars and raids into Central Asia, the Caucasus, and India, among other regions. There were also slave markets where young male slaves, along with female ones, captured as booty or procured by other means, were sold. The preferred slaves were Turkic ones, admired for their handsome features, their valor, and their martial gifts. The Samanids, who originated from Sogdiana and were neighbors to the Turkic khanates of Central Asia, adopted the practice of enlisting slaves in their army—a practice which continued under the succeeding dynasties, chiefly the Ghaznavids, the Seljuks, and theKʷārazmšāhs.


[Note:  The Abbasids ruled Arabia, Iraq, the Levant (Sham) and North Africa for 500 years, from 750 to 1258.  The Seljuks ruled Oman, and parts Iraq and the Levant from 1037-1194.]

The love poetry of these periods is generally addressed to such adolescent soldiers or pages.  That these Turks were ‘white’ or pale-skinned is made clear in these poems:

  • They are of musky facial hair, sweet of speech, with perfumed tresses / Silver-bodied, gold-girded, and narrow-waisted( Kāfi Ẓafar of Hamadān, cited by ʿAwfi in his Lobāb al-albāb (pp. 210-13))
  • I love silver-bodied, ruby-lipped children. / Wherever you see one of them, call me there (Farroḵi, Divān, p. 5).
  • O beautifully clad child, silver-bodied and ruby-lipped, / the substance of charm and gaiety, envious houries in pain from you! (Anvari, apud Šamisā, p. 80).
  • Attar (ʿAṭṭār [d. 1221] uses in his ghazals, which vibrate with profound and passionate, amorous feelings, the imagery developed by earlier poets: he sings of the beloved’s moon-like face, ruby lips, narrow, hair-like waist, cypress-like figure, the lasso of the beloved’s tresses, the chain of his curls…
Kipchak Turk
Kipchak Turk

Of course there were slaves of other origins as well, e.g., Indian and Slav (generally termed bolḡār “Bulgarian,” known for their fair skin).


There were many other dynasties of Turkic or Persian origin that ruled over what is now considered the Arab world.  Here are a few examples:

  • The Fatimids (909-1171, Arabian Peninsula, Levant, North Africa, Sudan) imported Turkic and Armenian soldiers into their armies. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatimid_Caliphate#Military_system)
  • The Seljuk Turks ruled parts of Iraq and the Levant from 1037-1194.  The settlement of Turkic tribes in the northwestern peripheral parts of the empire, for the strategic military purpose of fending off invasions from neighboring states, led to the progressive Turkicization of those areas.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seljuks
Mamluk Soldier
Mamluk Soldier
  • The Oghuz Turkic Zangids ruled the Levant from 1127-1250.
  • The Kurdish Ayyubids ruled the Arabian Peninsula and North Africa from 1171-1341.
  • The Mamluk Sultanate ruled the western Arabian Peninsula, Egypt and Libya from 1250-1517.  The sultanate’s ruling caste was composed of Mamluks- soldiers of predominantly Kipchak Turk, Cumans, Circassian, and Georgian slave origin.  By the late fourteenth century, Circassians from the North Caucasus region had become the majority in the Mamluk ranks. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mamluk_Sultanate_(Cairo)
Circassians (still prominent in the Levant)
Circassians (still prominent in the Levant)

On top of being “white”, all of these dynasties, and the many others not mentioned here, were involved in trading and capturing white slaves, in addition to settlement of peoples of their respective ethnicities.  Who can doubt the enormous changes this would have brought to the phenotype and color of these Arab lands?  And as all of these people would be in some degree Arabized (particularly in language) they are now known as Arabs.

Thus it seems that the Black & White Sheep” Prophecy would indeed come to pass, and that it was a reference to skin color and phenotype.    

The view of the ancient Arabs holds true today:  visible European features or ancestry is a sign of foreign, slave ancestry.

This shouldn’t be a problem.  African-Americans, Afro-Caribbeans and Afro-Latinos openly acknowledge slave ancestry as an explanation of their presence in the Americas, and they are expected to.  Why shouldn’t white and light-skinned Arabs feel comfortable doing the same?  Why shouldn’t they be expected to?  Why not anybody?  

It’s not as if slavery is the only way that white and light-skinned Arabs came to occupy Arabia, just as slavery not the only way that Africans came to be in America.  And whites were not the only slaves in Arabia, just as Africans weren’t the only slaves in America.

White people everywhere, including in Arabia and the Middle East, need to acknowledge that slavery is part of their history.  They need to because it’s true. 

After all, as the famous philosopher Plato reportedly said

“Every king springs from a race of slaves, and every slave had kings among his ancestors.”

black sheep. n. a member of a family or group who is regarded as a disgrace to it.
black sheep.  n.  1. a member of a family or group who is regarded as a disgrace to it.  2. The odd one out.

Un-holy Trinity/Dark Triad:  Vatican City State, City of London, District of Columbia

At the close of the Age, “the three major Centers will be in complete unified and synchronized activity,” controlling all manifestations of life:  the ruler of the spirit world (Vatican), the unperceived hierarchy of worldly power (London), and the human masses (District of Columbia).

unholy trinity
In this 17th century alchemical drawing, the AntiChrist King and his unholy trinity (three crowns over Earth) worship the transforming fire from their sun deity, symbolized by the triangle within a circle.

The Vatican City-State

Flag of the Vatican City State

The Vatican rules over approximately 2 billion of the world’s 6.1 billion people. The colossal wealth of the Vatican includes enormous investments with the Rothschild’s in Britain, France, and the USA, and with giant oil and weapons corporations like Shell and General Electric. The Vatican solid gold bullion worth billions, is partly stored with the Rothschild controlled Bank of England and the US Federal Reserve Bank. The global systems of control can be traced back to the representatives of the Vatican.

Council of Nicea

The Vatican orchestrated the feudal system in place of the allodial model; the feudal system established ownership. As innately you may only own that which you create, the Earth could only be owned through the grant of the owner, which would be the God of Abraham to a Christian.

Religion = Control

Jesus was invented in 313.  Constantine and Licinius met at Milan, where the two emperors formulated a common religious policy out of necessity from the economic collapse brought on by the practices of usury.  Months later Licinius issued the Edict of Milan.  However Licinius did not commit himself personally to Christianity. Constantine used the church as an instrument of imperial policy, and imposed upon it his imperial ideology.

The Pope was made the son of God, as the substitute of Christ, therefore god on Earth, and through that authority was claimed owner of the earth in its entirety. States are granted ownership through the authority of the Pope, there is no other basis or rational of the fraud of ownership.

Feudal Serfs (serf –> servus (latin) = slave)

Once ownership is established the constructed fictions of a legal positive law model can be imposed on the slaves upon the land, known as serfs, later renamed humans.  The policy of the landlords then applies upon that which is owned.  As no soul may be owned, a straw man of corporation is authored and the soul consents unwittingly to be re-presented.  The corporation is created with the birth certificate, the name is owned by the corporation of State, and to use the name establishes consent to be re-presented as the straw man.  The State is the author of the name, therefore the statists have authority over it.

The legal system is based wholly upon constructed fictions, such as corporation, trust, state and instruments, etc. It is a constructive system not a substantive one.

Usury & Banking

Prophetic Christianity Forbids Usury (moneylending, interest)

Upon the creation of the doomsday book the usury legal system of the Jews was installed by William the Bastard.  This was achieved through genocide, orchestrated by the Vatican that lasted 20 years in the establishment of ownership.  But that genocide did not end. It was inflicted upon the indigenous of Britain in perpetuity even to this day with the great culls of the world wars.  It has simply become more sporadic.

Ownership is the foundation of all usury systems. This legal system was updated by the ‘order of the Knights Templar’ who established the Temple Bar on Chancery Lane in 1185.  This was the founding of Roman law in England.  The English language was developed to service this legal commercial model. (Learn more: Law of Men. (The First Crusade) )

A Seal of the Knights Templar

The Templar’s had taken advantage of the crusades and created a banking network which the Vatican, upon seeing the vast wealth the Templars had amassed, tortured and murdered them, and stole their ill-gotten gains, taking over the banking network.  A new sect of the Vatican was created to administrate this enterprise among others- the Jesuits.

The Seal of the Jesuits (The Society of Jesus)

Institute for the Works of Religion a/k/a the Vatican Bank

This is the foundation of the Vatican bank, and it is still used mainly for criminal enterprise such as money laundering, arms and conflict funding, human trafficking, etc.  The Vatican bank was rebranded in 1942 as the Institute for Works of Religion (IOR). The criminal nature of IOR is well documented.

Logo of the Bank of England

The Vatican orchestrated through bloody conflict the creation of the Bank of England, which was divided into three shares, the Vatican, the Crown which was now controlled by the Vatican, who seated the power of the Crown within ‘the City’, and a third of public shares sold to the Lords.

City-State of London

Flag of the City of London

Like Vatican City, London’s Inner City is also a privately owned corporation, or city State, located right smack in the heart of Greater London. London’s square mile of ‘The City’ became a sovereign State in 1694 when the Vatican’s puppet King William III of Orange chartered the Bank of England for the bankers.

Great Coat of Arms of the Rothschild (Red Shield) House

In the Napoleonic wars Nathan Rothschild crashed the English stock market and scammed control of the public shares of the Bank of England. From the start of the French and Napoleonic Wars, right up to the final victory in 1815 the Rothschild ‘Demon’ brothers- Nathan and James- helped to maintain and orchestrate war and financed both the French and the English.

Seal of the City-State of London (“O Lord, Guide Us”)

Today the city-state of London is the world’s financial power centre and the wealthiest square mile on the face of the Earth. It houses the Rothschild controlled Bank of England, Lloyd’s of London, the London Stock Exchange, all British Banks, the branch offices of 385 foreign banks, and 70 US banks. It has its own courts, its own laws, its own flag, and its own police force. It’s not part of Greater London, England, or the British Commonwealth, and pays no taxes.

The city State of London houses Fleet Street’s newspaper and publishing monopolies. It is also the headquarters for worldwide English Freemasonry and headquarters for the worldwide money cartel know as the Crown.

The Crown

Contrary to popular belief the Crown is not the Royal Family (known as ‘The firm’) or the British Monarch. The Crown is the private corporate city-state of London. It has a council of twelve members who rule the corporation under a mayor called the Lord Mayor. The Lord Mayor and his twelve-member council serve as prophecies or representatives who sit in for thirteen of the world’s wealthiest, most powerful banking families. This ring of thirteen ruling families includes the Rothschild family, the Warburg family, the Oppenheimer family, and the Schiff family. These families and their descendants run the Crown Corporation of London.

The Crown Corporation holds the title to worldwide Crown land in Crown colonies like Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. The British Parliament and the British Prime Minister serve as a public front for these ruling crown families.

French Imperial Coat of Arms


The Trivium

The Napoleonic wars, like all wars are needed to create change.  The power of the feudal system was failing across Europe and a new system needed to be installed. War is the catalyst of change.  At that time the population was waking up.  The trivium was widely used to learn. (This was later countered by the compulsory Prussian School of Education- memorization and regurgitation of state-sanctioned information- and the printing press- counted through copyright and a caged press monopoly.) It had opened an ‘apocalypse’ (meaning an insight- uncovering, disclosure, revelation) that threatened the status quo.

Prussian Education System


The Vatican used the threat upon them generated by their friends the Rothschild’s to create support for a new emperor, Napoleon. Cardinal Chiaramonti, the Bishop of Imola, in his 1797 Christmas sermon, baptized “democracy”.  This Bishop was the Pope elected to replace the deposed Pius VI (who was gotten rid of), as Pope Pius VII.  Democracy was the new system to control the masses- through the lie of majority rule they would gain a perception of legal control, and remove the tyrannical model of the feudal monarchies, while retaining the tyrannical control. The most violent act any soul could commit against their neighbor would be to vote a representative upon them. Representative voting is an act of aggression, because it strips away consent and imposes submission.


The physical slavery model was also updated at this time for the economic slavery system of capitalism- resource monopoly was the new tool of enslavement through debt and scarcity. This allowed a perception of being free, while increasing the revenues from the slaves, as an economic slave requires no initial capital investment or maintenance, begs for labor from their master, and is thankful for the chance, and if injured or killed represents no great financial loss.

The Vatican is the largest wealth accumulator and property owner in existence, possessing more material wealth than any bank, corporation, giant trust, or government anywhere on the globe. The Pope, who is the visible ruler of this colossal global wealth, is one of the richest men on Earth. While two-thirds of the world earns less than two dollars a day, and one-fifth of the world is underfed or starving to death, the Vatican hordes the world’s wealth, profits from it on the stock market, and at the same time preaches about giving.

The District of Columbia City-State

Seal of the District of Columbia

Like the city-state of London and the Vatican, a third city-state was officially created in 1790 as the first act of the legal fiction of the Constitution of America, which was written by Vatican agents. That city-state is called the District of Columbia and is located on ten square miles of land in the heart of Washington.  The District of Columbia flies its own flag, and has its own independent constitution.

Flag of the District of Columbia (3 stars = Vatican, London, Columbia)

Although geographically separate, the city-states of London, the Vatican and the District of Columbia are one interlocking empire called the Empire of the City. The flag of Washington’s District of Columbia has three red stars- one for each city-state in the three-city empire. This corporate empire of three city-states controls the world economically through London’s inner city, militarily through the District of Columbia, and spiritually through the Vatican.

The legal fictional constitution for the District of Columbia operates under a tyrannical Roman law known as Lex Fori, which bears no resemblance to the US Constitution.

When Congress passed the Act (corporate policy) of 1871 it created a separate corporate government for the District of Columbia. This treacherous act allowed the District of Columbia to operate as a corporation outside the original constitution of the United States, and outside of the best interest of every soul living on the land the corporation held in the legal fiction of ownership.

Obverse and Reverse of the Seal of the King in his capacity as President of the Council of Virginia, the inscriptions signifying: “Seal of the King of Great Britain, France and Ireland”; “For his Council of Virginia”

A sobering study of the signed legal fictions of treaties and charters between Britain and the United States exposes a shocking truth that the United States has always been and still is a British Colony. King James I was famous, not for just changing the Bible into the King James Version, but for signing the First Charter of Virginia in 1606. That color of law charter granted America’s British forefathers a license to settle and colonize America. The legal fiction charter also guarantees that future kings and queens of England would have sovereign authority over all the legal fiction citizens and colonized land in America stolen from the indigenous population.

Before the genocide began, 633 First Nations inhabited North America- peoples of beauty, honour, and empathy.  Over 100 million souls lived there.  The soulless psychopaths who invented and dominated hierarchies created a deception of a ‘lost’ or uninhabited land, as if those living there were not families, communities, neighbors, peoples, but wildlife not worth concern.  Their murder was an act rewarded by the Statists of the corporation.   When ownership is installed the original utilisers of the land are commonly murdered and replaced with the indoctrinated.

First Nations
First Nations

In 1604, a corporation called the Virginia Company was formed in anticipation of the imminent influx of white West Asians (“Europeans”), mostly British at first, into the North American continent. Its main stockholder was King James I and the original legal fiction charter for the company was completed by April 10th 1606. (Learn more: The Nature of Ownership )

First Nations

Although King George III of England gave up most of his claims over the American colonies, he kept his right to continue receiving payment for his business venture of colonizing America. If America had really won the War of Independence they would never have agreed to pay debts and reparations to the King of England.

Monetary Control

In the War of 1812 the British torched and burned to the ground the White House and all US government buildings, and destroyed ratification records of the US Constitution. The Corporation America’s blood-soaked War of Independence against the British Crown corporation bankrupted America and turned its citizens into permanent debt slaves of the king, although taxation was not imposed until the Federal Reserve (private company) was created in 1913.

The FED was the third attempt to create a private money monopoly cartel, the Tsar (Caesar) of Russia had been a vocal opponent to the money masters and the Rothschild’s declared they would remove him and his entire bloodline from existence, which they did by organizing the Russian Revolution. The FED was created after it was arranged for all those standing against the FED to be aboard the Titanic, which had been stripped of lifeboats, before it was sunk with explosives in the middle of the Atlantic (or was it just a coincidence?).

Before the creation of the FED the corporation of America functioned on a surplus without any need of taxation.  From the introduction of the FED, the corporation America’s debt and the tax burden imposed on those who labor has ever increased.

The Virginia Company “legally owned” most of the land of what we now call the USA. The Virginia Company (The British Crown and the bloodline families) had rights to 50%- yes 50%- of all gold and silver mined on its lands, plus percentages of other minerals and raw materials, and 5% of all profits from other ventures. The lands of the Virginia Company were granted to the colonies under a Deed of Trust (on lease) and therefore they could not claim ownership of the land, as a slave cannot own. They could pass on the perpetual use of the land to their heirs or sell the perpetual use, but they could never own it. The legal fiction of ownership was retained by the British Crown.

The original Vatican version of the American Constitution reads: “The Constitution for the United States of America”. The altered version reads: “The Constitution of the United States of America”.

We the People*

*Slave-Owning White Males

When a soul living within the fictional borders of the American corporation agrees to have a social security number and become a citizen of the United States they surrender their independence and give sovereignty over, agreeing to become franchised, to the United States (The Virginia Company of the British Crown).

When a child is registered in live birth its name is transferred in ownership to the corporation.  It is the use of a title/name that acknowledges status, and so accepts hierarchy- Mr is a title of status, as is Doctor, or a legal name, etc.  This gives consent, as it gives confirmation of your status in the constructed legal fictional courts.

Everything in the “United States” is for sale: roads, bridges, schools, hospitals, water, prisons, airports etc.

The ‘Crown’ that owns Virginia (USA) is the administrative corporation of the City of London, a State independent of Great Britain and wholly owned by the Pontiff of Rome. From 1213 till 1541 and then from 1688 onwards, the Monarchs of England have been puppet Monarchs under the Pontifex Maximus of the Holy Roman Empire, a corporate body over which the pontiff of Rome is CEO.

Since 1300, when the Crown of Great Britain (England) was made a sub-corporation of the Crown of the City of London, the Monarchs of England, as CEOs of the Crown of Great Britain, have been agents for the Crown of the City. Thus, the real Crown was obfuscated from the eyes of the ‘colonials’.

However, anyone who cared to look and reason could have seen this scheme even in the late 1700s. The ‘Common Law’ of England, since the incorporation of the British Crown around AD 1300, has been Roman Municipal Law, a type of Roman civil law designed to rule over debtor states.

The indigenous peoples of Albion- (meaning the surface earth– renamed England (“Angle-Land”- after a tribe of Germanic invaders) by the Vatican) used terrente (‘the peace of their mind threatened’) arbitration model which was anarchic.

The common law of the Germanic invaders of southern Britain- the Angles and Saxons- was “God’s Law”. Both these systems ceased to exist with the implementation of the feudal system in 1086, (before feudal ownership arrived allodial utilisation was used), where all surviving people were subjects of the corporate Crown.

Papal Bull Seal

The Pope’s Papal Bull, Unam Sanctam 1302 declared: “Furthermore, we declare, we proclaim, we define that it is absolutely necessary for salvation that every man creature be subject to the Roman Pontiff.” Subject means slave, as does ‘citizen’ and ‘freeman’, to be subjugated (subject) to the will of a sovereign (master). Roman Law uses the law of the sea because all human institutions in the Roman system are make-believe ships at sea (incorporated bodies) of the Holy See. The ship is the fictional vessel that holds the soul.

There are two philosophical guides to the methods of the Jesuit Order of the Vatican:

  1. Machiavellianism-

the employment of cunning and duplicity in statecraft or in general conduct.


The word comes from the Italian Renaissance diplomat and writer Niccolò Machiavelli.

  1. Hegelian dialectic-

an interpretive method, originally used to relate specific entities or events to an absolute idea, in which some assertible proposition (thesis) is necessarily opposed by an equally assertible and apparently contradictory proposition (antithesis), the mutual contradiction being reconciled on a higher level of truth by a third proposition (synthesis).

These are the frameworks for guiding our thoughts and actions into conflicts that lead us to a predetermined solution. If we do not understand how the Hegelian dialectic shapes our perceptions of the world, then we do not know how we are helping to implement the vision.

A New World Order:  One World Government

At present the Vatican is orchestrating a “New World Order”- a single worldwide government: oppressor, military power, financial monopoly and religious tyrant:


  1. They wish to remove physical money and replace this with digital systems which they can easily dominate and manipulate.
  1. Eugenics.  They propagate the ideology of overpopulation, and
  • seek to reduce the number of souls on Earth,
  • use social engineering to make people care nothing for their neighbors’ suffering,
  • the promotion of vaccination to make men and women barren, unable to produce offspring, and
  • the cataloguing, chipping and monitoring of every soul.

A scientist who believes the world is overpopulated by 6 billion people has been appointed by Pope Francis to the Pontifical Academy of Science.

  1. Living Tax:  The ideology of climate change and the focus on carbon dioxide, which represents approximately a third of one percent of the atmosphere, being responsible, in order to create justification for heavy new taxations and the creation of a global carbon market (to consolidate corporate monopoly), which does nothing at all to address the real issue of pollution.

The Pope stated on climate change “governments need to think as “one world with a common plan.”

Unholy Trinity = Dark Triad

The Soullessness of the Jesuit Order and the Vatican personify the dark triad:

  1. Narcissism is characterized by grandiosity, pride, egotism, and a lack of empathy.

2. Machiavellianism is characterized by manipulation and exploitation of others; a cynical disregard for morality, and a focus on self-interest and deception.

  1. Psychopathy is characterized by enduring antisocial behavior, impulsivity, selfishness, callousness, and remorselessness, with a tendency towards perversion such as raping children, anal sex, and torture and degradation for pleasure.


Adapted from abdu-nNuur.  “The Vatican (updated)”. Servant of the Light.  http://servantofthelight.com/content/view/71/101/

Refuting Racism in Early Islamic Civilization

This is the full text of a book called “The Pride of the Blacks over the Whites” written in the second century of Islamic civilization to defend dark-skinned Arabs and Africans from the prejudices of the lighter-skinned Arabized Persians, Slavs and Turks living in Iraq.  

al-Jāḥiẓ was an Arabic prose writer and author of works of literature, theology, and politico-religious polemics. Born: 776 AD, Basra, Iraq. Died: 868 AD, Basra, Iraq.

In the name of the Almighty, Merciful God ;
May God protect and keep you; let He make you obey Him and make you part of his favorites.
You mentioned – may Allah protect you from deception – that you read my treatise (kitab) on the refutation of the pure Arabs to those of mixed parentage, the replies of the mixed ones and the answers of their maternal uncles. But I did not mention in it anything about the boasts of the Sudan. So know, – may Allah preserve you – that I postponed that intentionally. And you mentioned that you would like me to write to you the boasts of the Sudan, so I have written what I recall of their boasts.
Al-Asma’I said : Al-Fizr, a slave of the Fazara, who had a pierced earlobe is known to have said: Harmony arrives quickly in the creation. Because of that goats stay away from the sheep as long as there are goats around. The lamb avoids the predators, and also does not feel close to the ones with big hoofs.

Abu Zaid al-Nahwi recited the following verse:
Without harmony, man perishes.

Saddad Al-Hariti – with erudite eloquence – tells: “I requested from a black slave of the desert steppe:
-To whom do you belong, O Black one?
-To the Lord of Hadr (sedentary settlement), O Bald person.
– Aren’t you black?
– Aren’t you a bald person?
-Does truth thus puts you so much in anger?
– It is this truth which puts you so much in anger! Do not insult and you will be dreaded; really best is than you give it up completely “.

Saddad concludes: “In truth, at the time when I addressed the word to her, I thought to be worth all the inhabitants of Nagd and, at the time when she left me, I had the thought not to be worth my slave”.

Al ‘Asma’ i reports according to ‘Isa b. ‘Umar these words of Du l-Rumma: “That Allah curses the black slave of the family of Such and Such! That she speaks well and that she is eloquent!”. I asked him: “How is the rain which falls at your place?”
She answered: “We received as far as we wanted it”.

Qualities of the Blacks:
Among the Blacks, there is Luqman the Wise-one and it is him which said: “There are three men who are known to us only into three (circumstances): he who preserves his control in anger, the courageous one in the face of danger, the friend when you need him.
He gave his son the following advice: If you whish to remain with someone, make him angry before that. You will learn in advance if he is just and good. This is the only quote of him we regularly hear, because he had o to many sayings to chose from. More important then this is that God called him “the Wise” in the Koran as well as his testament to his son.

arab boy

Said ibn Jubair was also black. He got killed by Hajjaj at the age of 49 half a year before Hajjaj himself died at the age of 53. Said was a very pious man highly esteemed for his profound knowledge of the traditions of the prophet Mohamet and a companion of Ibn Abbas. The Hadith-scholars doubt even all Hadith who come from the companions of Ibn Abbas except those of Said ibn Jubair. His father was a marwa of the Asad tribe, and Said himself was a marwa of the Umayads. After he was killed people felt the loss.

Also among the blacks was: the Ethiopian, Bilal, of whom Caliph Omar said that he alone was worth a third of all Islam; Afga, the first to die in the holy wars of the Prophet; EI-Migdad, the first to fight in the holy war as a horseman; El Wanshi, who killed the false prophet, Musailima; known as “the Liar”. He had the habit to say; I’ve murdered the best one of all men; meaning Hamza ibn Abd al-Muttalib, may God’s peace rest on him
– and I killed the worst out of men, namely Musailima the impostor “.

And another Black, Makhul the lawyer.

And another Black, Al-Haiqutan the poet, who was higher [then the others] through his personal judgment, his reason and by the size of his insights. It is him who said in connection to friends: “the friend is recognized when one shares intimacy of the heart and when one accompanies one on a journey “.

And another Black, Gulaibib, on whom the transmitters said how the Envoy of Allah – How the blessing and the safety of Allah are on him! – left to carry out a raid and after it asked his companions: “Do we not miss somebody?”. They answered: “We seek Such and Such”. Then he left again and asked them [again]; “Do we not miss somebody? “. They answered: “We seek Such and Such”. Then he left again and asked them [again]: “Isn’t there somebody missing? ” ‘They answered for the third time: “We do not seek anybody”. The Prophet said: “As for me, I miss Gulaibib. Seek him!”. They went to seek and found him lying in the middle of seven [men], which he in fact had killed. The Prophet – That the blessing and the safety of Allah are on him – said: “He killed seven (men) and they killed him. This man is of me and me of him!” The Hadith specialists adds: “Then the Prophet held him in his arms until one had dug for him a tomb, without him having no other bed than the arms of the Prophet. We do not know if they were able to wash him before the burial.

moor 01

One of the Blacks was Faraj, the barber-surgeon, who was so just that he was often called by the judges for council. He was a freedmen of Jafar ibn Sulayman. He served Jafar many years cutting his hair and beard. Jafar had never found him making mistakes in what he did or said. So he decided to test him. If it really turns out his behavior is the result of inner- wisdom, I will make him free, find him a wife, and make him rich. If things turn different, I will have to take other steps. And one day when Faraj was cupping him he asked: slave do you cup yourself?
– Yes.
– And when?
– When I need some.
– Do you know when you need some?
– I know it most of the time, but sometimes it happens to me to make an error.
– What do you eat?
– In winter of sweetened big Dakbirah and in summer Sikbaga bitter-sweet “.

Ga’ far b. Sulaiman kept his promises.
It is in connection to this that Abu Firun said (Ragaz):
“Out of the way, my wife is in front of me,
I am a very close friend of Farag the layer of suction cups “.
One says: Farag had acquired such a reputation of impartiality, of nobility of heart of piety and religious scruple, that his owners, the descendants of Ga’ far and the notable ones of Mirbad required his testimony only for healthy businesses and without dispute “.

As for El-Haiqutan, he is the one who wrote the poem used in Yemen when arguing with the Quaresh and Mubar. The same poem the people from Persia and Ethiopia use against the Arabs. When the white poet, Jarir, saw El-Haiqutan in a white robe on a feast day, he remarked, “He looks like the penis of a donkey wrapped in white paper.” El-Haiqutan replied to him in a poem in which he said, “Though my hair is wooly and my skin black as coal I am generous and my honor shines. My color does not prevent my being valiant with my sword in battle. Know, you who would boast of your petty glory :
The people of the Negus have more reason for glory then you.

In the days that Islam was offered to El-Julanda, Ibn Kisra, Harith, Hawdha, the Copts, and Caesar they all refused.

Off al the kings only the Negus accepted.

As a result his kingdom lasted long, unmovable and prosperous.

Loqman was one of them, so to were his son and his mothers son.

As well as Abraha, the most renowned king.

Abu Yaksum’s invasion threatened the existence of your country,
And yet, you were as numerous as the grains (of sand), and more still,
Like the water birds, when, on them, fall
In a deserted country, the bird with the bent claws and gray of color. If another than Allah had wished to push back ‘Abraha. You would have noticed. That one which has the most experience of men is closest to the facts. There is no claim to fame, except that you live opposite the Sanctuary,

And that you lit fires in its vicinity.
If one of your chiefs, concerned his honor, advances (against us),
Or we face him, or he turns the back to us.
And as for what you say, that it is about a divine prophecy,
You did not know to protect the Sanctuary surrounded by veils.
You claim to be a tribe never subjugated and never paying tribute,
But it is simpler to pay a tax than to flee.
If a sovereign had wanted to seize it,
Then the Himyar and their Maqawil would have come there.
One can not stay there neither in summer nor in winter;
And its water is far from spouting out as in Guata.
There is neither place pleasant to the eye nor hunting ground,
But only the trade, and the trade is a disdainful thing.
Aren’t you (Garir) a puppy (kulaib) and your mother is she not a ewe?
Fats sheep are the source of your shame and your vanity.

As for the verses:
Gulanda, the son of Chosroes, Harit,
Hawda, the Copt and the worthy Cesar said no to Islam,
then he is referring to the time when the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) wrote to the Bana Julanda, but they refused to listen. As was the case with Chosroes, of Harith ibn Abi Shamir, of Hawdha ibn Ali al-Hanafi, of the Muqawqis, the patriarch of the Copts and ruler of Alexandria, and of the emperor of Byzantium; Caesar. However the Bana Mulanda became Muslim some time later, there where the Negus became Muslim before the conquest of Mecca and so retained his dominions while God took away the treasures (meaning provinces) from the others. The emperor of Byzantium; his diminished empire still exist, but he has been driven from every place where the hoofs of horses can tread. What rests him are bays, the high mountains, the strongest castles, the cold places and the rainy-windery ones. The poet also talks proudly of Loqman and his son.

moor 04

When the poet says:
Abu Yaksum invaded the very heart of your country,
And this despite the fact that you were as numerous as the grains of sand.
He alludes here to the Lord of the Elephant whose army’s attacked Mecca to destroy the Ka’ba.

The Poet says : You were as numerous as the grains of sand, so why did you flee from him ? None of you withstanding him until he reached Mecca. Mecca is the mother of the cities. The Arabian Peninsula is the homeland of the Arabs and Mecca is one of its towns, but an important and ancient one. Because of that it is considered the mother of the peninsula. That is why with the conquest of conquests is meant the conquest of Mecca. Similarly the Fatiha of the Book is called the Mother of the Book.

arab woman 5

It happens that the Arabs say of a thing that it is the mother of what it did not generate. Thus the expressions: he hid him on the top (Mother) of his head, of the same; Mother of hell. The host calls his hostess “my hospital Mother”.
A Bedouin, having been bitten by flees at a woman of which he was the host, says (Ragaz):
O Hospital mother! That your face is saved to me;
And that the supreme Master delivers me from your residence
And of the bites of flees which – I see it! – will make me die.
I spent the night to scratch me, to scratch myself
as scrapes itself a scabrous camel, during the rest.
Allah – How He is exalted! – clarifies Mecca and the Temple, when He says: “In truth, the first temple [which] was founded for people, is certainly that located at Bakka, [temple] blessed and direction for the world ”.

The poet wants to say: when Mecca – Mother of the cities, place of the Holy Temple and your claim to fame – was the object of raids, it is you all which were the object of raids.

As for the verses of the poet:
And as for what you say, it is about a divine prophecy;
You did not know to protect the Sanctuary, surrounded by veils.
You claim that your people have never been subjugated or paid tribute.
But paying that you will find easier then fleeing.

This is why the poet Abid ibn al-Abras says:
They refused to submit to kings and are free-people.
When they hear the call of war they go.
What he says means; you say you pay no tribute but paying is easier then fleeing and surrender although you enormously outnumber your enemies.

moor 05

When the poet says: Your country is not nice in winter or summer, nor is there the abundant water like Juatha (in Bahrayn).
He means conquering Mecca would never have brought profit, otherwise Yemen and other countries would have. The climate is bad; in winter its people go to Taif; during the heat to Jidda. And nothing in Mecca can compare with the lushness of Juatha.

When the poet says:
There is no grazing for the male oryx, no hunting either;
Only trading places and trade is never a right occupation.
He means Mecca has no lush green places, hunting is prohibited. There are only merchants which have no good reputation.
He also says that the people of Mecca lack strength and kings refrain from taking their means of living because they would not satisfy a king. Those from Mecca are unable to protect themselves.

Because of this the poet Muawiya ibn Aws said:
I bought, in a shop, more than one goatskin flask of wine,
As swarthy as a man with the dark skin,
I folded back the opening of it on the neck,
Folded back it resembled a mutilated hand;
I carried them to a greedy Arab merchant, or a wine merchant bearing earrings and with cripple Arab.
All these verses refer to the Quraysh. They say that the Quraysh are merchants who seek the protection of the Sanctuary, and when they travel, they carry the fruit of the palm tree and the bark of trees, so that they are recognized and that nobody kills them.

arab children

The poet says:
Are you not a member of the Kulayb tribe? Isn’t your mother one of those sheep?
Your fat sheep are both your pride and your shame.
It is rumored that the Kulayd tribe is having intercourse with their sheep just like the tribes of el-Araj and Sulaym. And the people of the Ashja are rumored to have intercourse with goats.

Al-Najashi said:
If only one of the tribes of the Quraysh had degraded me other then the goat buggers Sulaym and Ashja.

Al Farazdaq said:
As long as I live I will never be able to bring as sacrifice the milk sheep that belonged to the Araj.
After spending my money I may find the animal gives bird to a boy.

Another poet: If you want more money for your female donkey, just tell the Darimi that you sell it.
He will kiss its back, but for its dryness, would draw near to its buttocks.
The Darimi, when he copulates with the donkey wants his mouth to reach the animals mouth.

Abd ibn Rashid said:
They are bad people, the best of them are still bad.
To the sheep they herd they are the male and the shepherd.
When one of their women is made ready for marriage;
It will be the spotted sheep that weeps sincerely.

This is why Al ‘Ahtal said (Kamil);
Enjoy your ewes, O Garir.
Because your heart encouraged you only with the depravity in loneliness.

This is why Al-Haiqutan says:
Are not you not a puppy (kulaib) and your mother is she not a ewe?
Fat sheep are the source of your shame and your vanity.
As for shame, it is about their bad reputation in connection with the ewes. As for their claim to fame: the poet makes it clear that, when they are prevailed of something, it is ewes, if still they would arrive to the camels.

arab children 2

Among the claims to fame of the Blacks, of Zang and Abyssinians, in addition to the fragment of the Al-Haiqutan poem, which we have mentioned, it is necessary to count, after Garir b. Al-Hatafa who had turned against the Banu Taglib in (Kamil):
Do not seek really any maternal uncle at [Banu] Taglib,
Because Zang have maternal uncles nobler than them [Banu Taglib],
the verses of Sanih b. Ribah which, in anger, turns to Garir and, against him, glorifies the Zang (Kamil):
Why does this animal of the Kulayd talks bad about us?
Has he seen he is no match for Hajib and Iqal?
Somebody who compares the donkey called Maragha and her son (Jarir)
To al Farazdaq is unreal and beyond understanding.
If you would meet Zanj in formation for battle,
You would see noble heroes.
Ask Ibn Amr, when he sought out their spears,
Did he not find the Zanj spears to be long?
They took (killed) the son of Ziyad and they dismount their horses for battle.
And when they have dismounted to go to battle, what a battle.
They left in their courtyards the horses of war,
While you had only sheep and lambs in your corals.
Ibn Nadba, a warrior in your ranks, was one of us blacks
So was Khufaf, who had many problems to take care of,
And the two sons of Zubayba, Antara and Harasa.
We don’t see other people like that in your ranks .
Ask Ibn Jayfar, when he marched against our homeland,
How destructive they were when they attacked him.
Ans Sulayk, called the lion, or the respected Abbas,
When they attack, they all outshine you completely.
Among them is also Ibn Khazim ibn Ajla.
He surpassed all tribes in courage and honesty.
They were all sons of noble women, who were on they turn descendents of noble women.
They are the lions who bring up their little ones.
And so are we nobler then the Kulaib because of our maternal uncles;
You, however, you are viler than them under this same report.
And the sons of Al-Hubab, here are people who can strike a lance or to nourish you.
In winter, when the wind of the North blows.

true arabs 2

The ibn ‘Amr of which we talked is Hafs b. Ziyad b. ‘Amr Al ‘Ataki; he replaced his father as the head of the Al-Haggag police force, when Ribah Sar az-Zangi seized the area of the Euphrate, Hafq b. Ziyad went then to meet him. Ribah killed them, him and his men, and pillaged his camp.

As for Ibn Gaifar, it is an-Nu’ man b. Gaifar b. ‘Ubad b. Gaifar b. Al Julanda (or Gulanda); they had made an incursion in Zang territory: The Zang killed them and plundered the camp.
Then the poet speaks about the sons of the Zang women, when they draw towards the Zang in bravery and self-esteem. He mentions then Hufaf bin Nadba, ‘Abbas b. Mirdas, the two sons of Saddad: ‘Antara ‘l-Fawaris and his brother Harasa, as well as Sulaik bin as-Salaka. The latter, lions among the men, have the boldest hearts, the most intrepid courage and they passed in proverb.

One counts among ( the sons of the Zang women) ‘Abd Allah b. Hazim as Sulami, and the sons of Al-Hubab: ‘Umair b. Al-Hubab and his brothers. Al Jahhaf ibn Hakim was one of them to.
They are also proud of Raban, Bilal’s brother, because of his piety also Amir ibn Fuhayra who was at Badr and died a martyrs dead on the day of Bir Mauna, and those present saw him being raised up by God up from the earth to the heaven, so he has no grave among us.

Among the blacks is also Yasir’s family.

They also say: El-Ghandaf who was with Ubayd Allah ibn al Hurr was one of us, he was the most courageous among men. He would attack caravans single-handed. Also a man with proverbial courage was Kabawayh who was with al Mughira ibn al Fizr. Marbah al Ashram ; the young slave of general Abu Bahr was black to. He came here from Syria in the days of Qutayba ibn Muslim. His reputation was so widespread that people tried not to meet him. Also among them was El Maglul and his sons, who though slaves were very generous and wise and were renowned among the people of the dessert about their knowledge of it. Also among us was Aflah, who attacked caravans in Khorassan single handed for twenty years.

Malik ibn al-Rayb killed him after he had sodomized him in the middle of the night, when he was to intoxicated and unarmed. The verses of his son testify about this (Tawil):
He Malik! If ‘Aflah had not been drunk, you would have seen undoubtedly that he is brother of the russet-red lion and even the eclipse!

The Blacks continue: coming from Abyssinia, we were Masters of the country of Arabia up to Mecca, and on all the country our law reigned. We put to rout Du Nuwas, killed by the ‘Aqyal Himyarites. You, you never dominated our country.

Your poet says (Tawil): They ruined Gumdan and threw its roof down.
Riyat and his troops, by an impetuous attack, with force.
The Abyssinians encircled it at night and threw down
A construction built by the ‘Aqyal at in remote times,
A multitude, of black color, coming from Al-Yaksum, such as
The lions of d’as-Sara, which would have been wearing a leopard skin.

[Blacks] add: we count among us Kabagila; no one of those who went up the Sulaiman channel and who fought in singular combat did resemble him.

They continue: also the forty are ours who revolted, at the time of the qadi Sawwar b. ‘Abd Allah, in the area of the Euphrates; they drove out their dwellings the populations of this area and went on to an immense massacre of the inhabitants of Ubulla.

The one who did cut the head of Isa ibn Jafar in Oman with a Bahrayni scythe when all were afraid was one of us.

arab woman

Everybody knows that the Zanj are among the most generous of mortals ; a quality that is found only among noble characters. These people have a natural talent for dancing to the rhythm of the tambourine, without needing to learn it. There are no better singers anywhere in the world, no people more polished and eloquent, and no people less given to insulting language. All other peoples in the world have their stammerers, those who have difficulty in pronouncing certain sounds, and those who cannot express themselves fluently or are downright tongue-tied, except the Zanj. Sometimes some of them recite before their ruler continuously from sunrise to sunset, without needing to turn round or pause in their flow. No other nation can surpass them in bodily strength and physical toughness. One of them will lift huge blocks and carry heavy loads that would be beyond the strength of most Bedouins or members of other races. They are courageous, energetic, and generous, which are the virtues of nobility, and also good-tempered and with little propensity to evil. They are always cheerful, smiling, and devoid of malice, which is a sign of noble character. Some people say that their generosity is due to their stupidity, shortsightedness and lack of foresight, but our reply is that this is a scurvy way of commending generosity and altruism. At that rate the wisest and most intelligent man would be the most stingy and ungenerous. But in fact the Slavs are more stingy than the Byzantines, and the latter more intelligent and thoughtful; according to our opponents’ argument, the Slavs ought to be more generous and open-handed than the Byzantines.

Likewise we see that women have less sense than man and children have less sense than women, but are meaner than they are. If more sense meant greater meanness, then the child should be the most generous of all. Yet in fact we know nothing on earth that is worth than a boy, for he is the most untruthful of mankind, the most calumnious, the nastiest, and the meanest, the least inclined to do good, and the most ruthless. Only gradually does the boy leave these qualities as he gains in sense and gains in good deeds. How then can the lack of sense be the cause of generosity in the Zanj? You have admitted that they are generous, and then you make assertions which are untenable, and we have already shown you the fallacy of your argument according to true reasoning. This opinion would mean that the coward is wiser than the brave man, the treacherous wiser than the loyal, and that the worrier is wiser than the patient man. This is something for which you have no proof. These qualities in man are a gift of God. Sense is a gift, and good character is a gift, and generosity and courage likewise.
The Zanj say to the Arabs: You are so ignorant that during the jahiliyya (the times of ignorance ) you regarded us as your equals when it came to marrying Arab women, but with the advent of the justice of Islam you decided this practice was bad. Yet the desert is full of Zanj married to Arab wives, and they have been princes and kings and have safeguarded your rights and sheltered you against your enemies.

You even have sayings in your language which vaunt the deeds of our kings–deeds which you often placed above your own; this you would not have done had you not considered them superior to your own.

Al Namr ibn Tawlab recited the following poem:
Bad luck came over his rule as over Tubba
And the great king Abraha, placed him higher then the princes of his own country.
Labid ibn Radi’a recited the following:
If a person could reach eternity during his lifetime, Abu Yaksum would be among those.
This kind of virtue has never been ascribed to anyone before.
The (Zanj) also say: from Labid’s verses it becomes also clear that you put our kings higher then your own.
Darkness came over those who survived from Muharriq’s family.
Darkness that had done its work with Tubba and Heraclius,
Darkness that had vanquished Abraha, who was living in the palace of Mawkal.
So he prefers Abraha , but he would like the other kings to be his equals.

The (Zanj) say : The Ethiopian, Akym ibn Akym, was more eloquent than Eli-Ajjaj. It is from him that the Syrians learnt the sciences and also from El Montagi ibn Nabhan, who was a native of Negroland and had a pierced ear. He had come to the Arabian desert as a child and left it with a complete knowledge of Arabic.

Hakim ibn Ayash al Kalbi said:
Don’t feel pride in the maternal uncle from the Asad tribe;
Because even the Zanj and Nubians are more noble to have as uncles then they.
Akym ibn Akym the Abyssinian made the following response:
On the day of the battle of Ghumdun we were like lions and on the day of Yathrib we were the stallions of the Arabs. On the fearful day of the elephant the hearts of the Arabs deserted them and they fled on their camels.
The negus is one of us; and Dhul Aqsayn is your brother in law. The grandfather of Abraha, the protector of Abu Talib was one of us.
I have to forgive Adnan if he makes fun with us ; because what can be said of the genealogy of the Himyari? They are muleteers, assembled from everywhere, gathered as a net gathers fish in the stormy sea.

true arabs
Gumdan, a fortress, ordinary the residence of the king – then Persian – who reigned on Yemen. When Abyssinians seized Yemen, they let remain only of the ruins which ‘Utman b. ‘Affan – That Allah satisfied with him! – destroyed at the time of the coming of Islam, while saying: “It is necessary to extirpate the vestiges of the gahiliya (the false prophet)”. The fortress comprised a cistern, capped by an asbestos roof, of which Halaf Al ‘Ahmar said;
And an asbestos cistern, which demolished
By the attacking Abyssinian, and his king.
About it, Qudama, the wise of the Moslem East and Master in alchemy, has said (Tawil); He lit its fire there; nevertheless fire
Would last indefinitely, the cistern does not disappear,
Because asbestos, even if a fire burned there thousand years, would not heat. Those which launch the naphtha coat themselves with some, when they want to penetrate into the fire.
Labid says (Wafir);
O friendly, do you not see a flash illuminating the black night,
Like the flame on the wick of the lamp?
I could not find the sleep, while the flash moved away towards Nagd in the motionless night,
And when the companions were held dormant on their saddles of wood.
Its shoddy cloud illuminated the heavy clouds and there cut out silhouettes of Abyssinians, Armed with small swaths and javelins.
“Labid,” he says, “used this imagery because when the Ethiopians, splendid in the blackness of their skins and in the vigor and strength of their superb bodies, attacked with their spears, bows, and arrows they spread an unimaginable terror around them.”
When Ukaym says : On the day of Yathrib we were the stallions of the Arabs.
It is a reference to Musrif ibn Uqba al Murri the general who gave the conquered city (Medina) over to the troops for pillage and the Negroes cohabited with the captured women, which are mentioned in the following verses of Mudar;
Ask Musrif El Mwirri the general in question about the morning when he gave the captured virgins over to his weather-beaten Negro soldiers. On this occasion the Zanj fought you, Whites, in spite of your rage. Wahrig defended you with his Persians, whilst the Ethiopian general commanded in the midst of destruction. It was then the women of your race were enjoyed by a Negro, whose phallus was the size of a donkey’s.

When the poet says:
They are muleteers, assembled from everywhere, gathered as a net gathers fish in the stormy sea.
He here accepted what story tellers say about Himyar.-That they used to be muleteers.
The Negroes can also be proud of the fact that the single dead person over whom the Prophet ever prayed was their ruler, the Emperor of Ethiopia.
He prayed for the Negus, while the Prophet was in Medina, and the tomb of the Negus in Abyssinia.

And also: “the Negus is who gave in marriage to the Prophet – That blessing and the safety of Allah be on him! – ‘Umm Habiba, girl of Abu Sufyan: he asked Halid b. Sa’ id to be the tutor of ‘Umm Habiba, offering in the name of the Prophet – How the blessing and the safety of Allah are on him! – a dowry of four hundred dinars.

And also: we made you three presents: the civet, the most sweet perfume, most exquisite and noblest; the litter; it is the best defense for the women and best protection for what is sacred for man; the codex: it preserves best its contents and ensure best preservation; it is splendid and most handy.

And also: we inspire the most fear in the heart and catch most of the glances (of the onlookers), just as the carriers of black (Abbasid) inspire more fear and fill up more the heart than the carriers of white (Umayyad), in the same way the night inspires more fear than the day.

And also: the color black always inspires the most fear. The Arabs, to describe their camels, say: “the black horses are most beautiful and most robust, the black cows best and most beautiful, and their skins are most valuable, most useful and most durable. The black ewes give the fattiest milk and creamy, moreover the dark brown ewes give more milk then the russet-red ewes”. while every stone and hill is dryer and harder the more it is black.

The black lion is invincible.

The black date is the highest quality. Healthy date palms have black stems.

A hadith of the Prophet says : Follow the great black color.

The poet al-Ansari says:
I’m in debt but I do not have to worry;
Because I own tall date groves, well pruned.
And every heavy laden palm seems to have been smeared with the pitch of blood of sacrificed animals.

The Zanj say that the best green is the darkest green. God, may he be exalted said: And besides these there are two gardens. When describing them so as to make people long for them God called them dark green. Ibn Abbas said : they became dark green through irrigation.
Black ebony is the most solid and most durable of woods. It s also most expensive , free of disease, best fit for art-work. It is so heavy that of all woods expensive and cheap ones only ebony sinks in the water. Remember that even certain stones do not sink while ebony sinks immediately.

A person remains handsome as long as his hair is still black and in paradise everyone will have black hair. The pupils of the eye, too are black and are they not the most precious part of the human body. The most expensive kohl is made of antimony which is black. This is why a hadith of the Prophet states that God will have all the faithful enter paradise hairless (on their body) beardless, and their eyes blackened with kohl.

Man doesn’t have anything more useful in him than his liver, which ensures the good operation of the stomach and the digestion of food and the good functioning of the unit maintains the life of the body; however, the liver is black.

Man does not have anything more valuable, more expensive in him than the black bile of his heart, a clot of black blood situated in the folds of this internal organ; it holds in this heart the same place as the brain in the head.

The woman does not have anything sweeter and more pleasant than her lips, for the kiss; however, they are all the more beautiful as they are as close to the black as possible. Du r-Rumma says (Basit):
Sunk are its lips blood-colored and purple,
Of the same are her gums, fine and bright her teeth.
The most pleasant shade and freshest is the shade [well] black. The poet says (Ragaz): Jet black, similar to the shade projected by the stone.

Humaid b. Tawr says (Tawil):
We sought the shade of a cave, while our mounts
Sought the wood shade shaded on which would fall the evening,
Trees in the major shades, like
Ascetic nuns, who prohibit the wine.
Allah created, the night for the rest and recovery, and the day for the profit and the labor.
One can also say that black is associated with activity as scorpions and snakes come out at night and bring their poison into the night. This activity counts for most wild animals and also ghosts. All this happens during the night. The blacks say; we also resemble the night like this.
They also say : the greatest of siestas that last the longest is in the darkness of the closed door and windows.

They also say : no color is deeper and homogeneous then black.

A proverb to say that something is very far :
You will not see this until tar becomes white and the raven gray-haired.

According to the philosophers, black is the accident that fills the area.

Musk and amber are the best perfumes. Both are black; as are the hardest rock.

Abu Daddil al-Jumahi said the following lines in praise of al Azzaq al Makhzumi who was called Abd Allah ibn Abd Shams ibn al Mughira. :
My gratefulness to you is boundless;
As long as there are rocks in the valley of the Lebanon
You will be the object of praise and precious in value.
Just as there is no fault in the Black Stone.

The Arabs draw glory from the black color. If an objector advances; “On what is that based, as they say: Such is of a pure white, bursting of whiteness, white and of clear face? We will answer: By this, the Arabs do not mean the whiteness of the skin, but rather the nobility and purity of character. The Hudr (of Banu) Muharib draw glory from their dark color, and people with the black dye are called among Arabs the hudr.

As-Sammah b. Dirar says (Tawil):
The camels leave in the evening Zarud, and [the setting sun] covered
Zubala with the coat of the night.

The poet says (Ragaz);
Until the moment when the morning draws me from a dark night,
Like the valiant knight who takes from the sleeve the well soaked sword.
The Arabs qualify the iron as dark, because it is hard, and that it is dark means black.

Al-Harit b. Hilliza says (Munsarih):
When we force our camels from the branches of palm tree of Bahrain,
A race not stopped until Al-Hisau retains them.
We then put to defeat the troop of the son of Umm Qatam,
The ones with the dark weapons of Persia.

Al-Muharibi said the following about his being a member of the Khudr clan.
Every man of virtue knows I’m a member of the Khudr clan of the tribe of Qays.
Not easily to command; not enduring any injustice, and mentally sharp.

The clan of Mughira are the Khudr of the tribe of Makhzum .

Al Makhzumi spoke the following lines, which were also from al-Fadl ibn al-Abbas al Lihbi:
I am the famous Al Akhdar, very well known
The dark one in the land of the Arabs.
Those finding me in a contest as adversary, find a noble man.
The one who fills the bucket to the knot in the rope.

The Khudr of the Ghassan tribe are the royal house of Jafna.

Al Ghassani said:
According to Al Hakam I’m a descendent from the royal Khudr.
Of those who paid the blood money to those of Baris.

Some poet; maybe Hassan mentions the Khudr of the Ukaym tribe; saying;
You are not from the nobles of the clan Hashim, neither from the Jumah, Khudri, and the other powerful.

The ten sons of Abd el Mottalib the grandfather of Mohammed were all black and strong. The Amir ibn al Tufayl said that the Kaba was well guarded when he saw them on black camels going around the Kaba.

Ibn Abbas was black and very tall. Those of Abu Talib’s family , who are the most noble of men, are more or less black.

The Zanj say: The Prophet (p.b.u.h.) said: I was send to the red and the black. And everybody knows that the Zanj, Abyssinians and Nubians or surely not white or red but definitely black.

moor 06

We know that Allah, the Most Powerful and Exalted, sent His Prophet (to the people), all of them: Arabs and non-Arabs (ajam) alike. And if he (Muhammad) said: I was sent to the ruddy (Al-ahmar) and the dark-skinned (al-aswad), then in his view we are neither ruddy nor light-skinned (bid); so he was sent to us. Indeed, his use of the dark-skinned refers to us, as the people (of our community) are in one of these categories (i.e. either ruddy or dark-skinned).

Therefore, if the Arabs are ruddy, then they belong to the Byzantines (Rum), Slaves (Saqaliba), Persians and Khurasanis. But if they belong to the dark-skinned peoples, then they are a sub-category of our stock. So they are called medium-complexioned and brownish-black (sumr sud) when they are classified with us, as the Arabs use the masculine gender to refer to a group consisting of females and males.

And if the Prophet – may Allah be pleased with him – knew that the Zanj, Ethiopians and Nubians were not ruddy or light-skinned, rather dark-skinned, and that Allah Most High sent him to the dark-skinned and the ruddy, then surely he made us and the Arabs equals. Hence, we are the only dark-skinned people. If the appellation dark-skinned applies to us, then we are the pure Sudan, and the Arabs only resemble us. Therefore we are the first people to whom he was missioned. Thus the appellation of the Arabs is predicated on ours, since we alone are designated dark-skinned, and they are not so designated unless they are part of us.

The Zanj also say: The Arabs think that the more people the better but we are the most numerous on this world, and have the most children. You can say there are two kinds of people among us (among the Zanj) the ants and the dogs. Trying to measure the amount of Arabs with the amount of ants you will see the ants are more numerous. Well then still add the dogs to that amount. You really have to add on the people of Abyssinia, Nubia, Fazzan, Marawa, Zaghawa and all the other black tribes.

Qahtan is far from Adnan. We are closer kin to the Abyssinians and our mothers are closer kin then those of Adnan are to Qahtan. When talking about languages the one from Ajuz of the Hawazin tribe is very different. Languages can be very different but still have the same origin; or have different origins but resemble each other anyhow. The language in the different regions of Khurasan differ as well as those of Jibal and Faris it all depends on the region but they have the same origin.

They say: You have never seen the genuine Zanj. You have only seen captives who came from the coasts and forests and valleys of Qanbuluh, from our menials, our lower orders, and our slaves. The people of Qanbaluh have neither beauty nor intelligence. Qanbaluh is the name of the place by which your ships anchor.

The natives in the Bilad Zanj are in both Qambalu (Pemba) and Lunjuya (Unguja), just as Arabs are the descendants of Adnan and Qahtan in the Middle East.

You have yet to see a member of the Langawiya kind, either from the coast (al-Sawahil), or from the interior (al-Jouf). If you would meet these, you would forget the issue of fair looks and perfection. Now if you refuse to believe this, saying that you have yet to meet a Zanji with the brains even of a boy or a woman, we would reply to you, have you ever met among the enslaved of India and Sindh individuals with brains, education, culture and manners so as to expect these same qualities in what has fallen to you from among the Zanj.

Yet you know how much there is in India of mathematics, astronomy, medical science, turnery and woodwork, painting, and many other wonderful crafts. How does it happen that among the many Indian captives you have made there has never been one of this quality, or even a tenth of this quality?

If you say, People of standing, intelligence and knowledge only live in the centre, near the seat of government; these are hangers-on uncouth types, peasants, people of the coast and swamps and forests and islands, plowmen and fishermen, we answer you; the same is true of those who you see and those you do not see of us. Our answer to you is as your answer to us.
They say; If a Zanji and a Zanji women marry and their children remain after puberty in Iraq, they come to rule the roost thanks to their numbers, endurance, knowledge, and efficiency. On the other hand, the child of an Indian and an Indian woman, or of a Greek and a Greek woman, or of a Khurasani and a Khurasani women remain among you and in your country in the same condition as their fathers and mothers. The child of two Zanji parents does not remain thus after puberty, so that we do not find, among ten thousand, one who does what we said, except when a Zanji mates with a non-Zanji woman or a Zanji women with a non-Zanji man. Were it not for the fact that neither the Zanji man nor the Zanji women has much desire for people of other races, we would see an abundant progeny for Zanji men, while Zanji women hardly respond to non-Zanji men.

They say: Likewise, you whites are not very active in seeking progeny from Zanji women, and the Zanji women falls pregnant more swiftly to a Zanji than to a white man.

They say; it hardly ever happens among you that a man has a hundred children sprung from his loins, unless it is a Caliph, and then it is because of the large number of his women. You don’t find this among the rest of you. Among the Zanj so large a progeny would not be considered remarkable, for there are many such in their country. A Zanji woman bears about 50 times in about 50 years, each bird being twins, so that there are more then ninety. For it is said that women do not bear children when they reach 60, except for what is told of the women of Quraysh in particular.

The Zanj are the most eager of all God’s creatures for their women, and so also their women for them. They are also better compared to other women.

Please think about what we have said. We have used facts from history as arguments and explained or quoted poetry from Arabs and others.

Al Farazdaq was the one specialist of women and he had tried all races and remained unsatisfied. So he finally married Umm Makkiya the Zanj women and stayed with her. Forgetting all others because of her qualities. He made the following verse:
He quotes Arab poet Farazdaq (d730) How many a tender daughter of the Zanj walks about with a hotly burning oven as broad as a drinking bowl.

Dananir the daughter of Kabawayh al Zanji lived with Asha Sulaym. She was extremely black. Once she dyed her hands with henna and her eyes with black kohl. He made the following verse of it.
She dyes the palm of her hands, palms as if clipped off from her forearm.
She dyes the henna with her black color.
She seems with the kohl in her pencil,
As if she is applying kohl to her eyes with part of her skin.
She answered with the following poem:
Uglier than my color is the blackness of his arse.
Contrasting with his skin, which is like palm pith or even whiter.
In the streets they started calling him black and the street kids yelled it and he divorced her.

The day of their wedding he had said: Dinars are of poor metal; and her response was: A white head is worse then my black color. The worst however are gray eyebrows.

He kept quiet for some time and then attacked again. When she finally brought disgrace on him he divorced her.

They say; If white men look on black women without desire, so too do black men look on white women without desire, for passions are habits and mostly convention. Thus, for the people of Basra, the most desirable women are Indians, the daughters of Indian women and Ghuris; for the Yemenis the most desirable women are Ethiopians and the daughters of Ethiopian women; for the Syrians the most desirable women are Greeks and the daughters of Greek women. Each people has a taste for the women whom they import as slaves and captives, apart from the exceptions, and no inferences can be drawn from exceptions.

The Negroes also have the sweetest breath and the greatest amount of saliva being in this respect like the dog as compared with other animals.

The Zanj say: Black delights the eye. When the eyes hurt a common prescription is sitting in the dark with a rag over the eyes. Good eyesight is the most precious thing for a person. They say :
The blacks are more numerous than the whites. The whites at most consist of the people of Persia, Jibal, and Khurasan, the Greeks, Slavs, Franks, and Avars, and some few others, not very numerous; the blacks include the Zanj, Ethiopians, the people of Fazzan, the Berbers, the Copts, and Nubians, the people of Zaghawa, Marw, Sind and India, Qamar and Dabila, China, and Masin… the islands in the seas between China and Africa are full of blacks, such as Ceylon, Kalah, Amal, Zabij, and their islands, as far as India, China, Kabul, and those shores.

They say; Al-Ishtiyan the blind man used to say; There are more blacks than whites, more rocks than mud, more sand than soil, more saltwater than sweet water.

They say; The Arabs belong with us and not with the whites, because their color is nearer to ours. The Indians are more bronzed than the Arabs, and they belong to the blacks. For the Prophet, God bless and save him, said; I was sent to the red and the black, and everyone knows that the Arabs are not red, as we already have stated above.

He said; This advantage belongs to us and to the Arabs, as against the whites, if the Arabs want it. If they do not want it, then the advantage is ours alone against all the rest.

The Zanj also say: If we are more numerous because of Zabaj alone we would still be far superior to you because of our merit. If it happens that the king of Zabaj has problems with the citizens, and they don’t pay their taxes, he sends his army of thousands of people not with orders to beat and fight them. He does give orders for his soldiers to settle between them till they pay them. His army is bothering the people so badly by taking food and clothing from them that it is easier to pay the taxes. If they still don’t pay he sends more regiments. The local rulers always wind up paying for fear he and his people will finally be destroyed by the army.
Once a king of Zabay reached an estuary which is several parasangs long and wide. In his camp he heard a women crying. He interrupted his meal to go and ask what had happened. He was told that the son of the women was eaten by a crocodile in the swamp. The king got angry because a creature existed that just like him took the right to decide on live or dead of his people. He dived into the water, all his soldiers followed him. They finished every single crocodile in the place with their hands. The people of Zabay alone are half of the population on earth. On the ends of the inhabited world all are black people. These ends are more populated then the central area, just like the circumference of a windmill in the wind is bigger than the pivot of that windmill. It is like the balcony of a house; it is narrow but as it goes all around the house its total area is bigger then the house itself. After the land of Zabay there are no more white people as we have reached there the periphery of the world where all are black. This is a proof that we are more numerous then the whites and we have the right to be proud of it.

One of the white poets said:
You are not more then they in number
And glory belongs to those bigger in number.

The Zanj also say: The Copts too are blacks. Abraham the friend of God married one of them and so was born a big prophet the ancestor of the Arabs; Ismael. The Prophet (p.b.u.h.) also married one of them and Ibrahim was born. The angel Gabriel when addressing the prophet called him father of Ibrahim.

moorish girl
The Zanj also say: The Black Stone is from paradise. The darker a piece of copper the more it is worth.

To those who despise the color black, we would reply that the excessive lanky, thin, and reddish hair of the Franks, Greeks, and Slavs, the redness of their locks and beards, the whiteness of their eyelashes, are uglier and more loathsome. There are no albinos among blacks, but only among you.

The Zanj also say : We also have philosophers from among us as well as theologians and we have fine manners. God may he be exalted , did not make them black in order to disfigure them; rather it is their environment that made them so. The best evidence of this is that there are black tribes among the Arabs, such as the Banu Sulaim bin Mansur, and that all the peoples settled in the Harra, besides the Banu Sulaim are black. These tribes take slaves from among the Ashban to mend their flocks and for irrigation work, manual labor, and domestic service, and they take their wives from among the Byzantines; and yet it takes less than three generations for the Harra region to give them all the complexion of the Banu Sulaim. This region is such that the gazelles, ostriches, insects, wolves, foxes, sheep, asses, horses and birds that live there are all black. White and black are the results of environment, the natural properties of water and soil, distance from the sun, and intensity of heat. There is no question of metamorphosis, or of punishment, disfigurement or favor meted out by Allah. Besides, the land of the Banu Sulaim has much in common with the land of the Turks, where the camels, beasts of burden, and everything belonging to these people is similar in appearance: everything of theirs has a Turkish look.

The soldiers of the frontier garrisons on this side of the Awsim sometimes come across Byzantine sheep mixed up with sheep belonging to the local inhabitants, but they have no difficulty in distinguishing the Byzantine flocks from the Syrian by their Byzantinity. When one comes across the descendents of Bedouin men and women who have ended up in Kurasan it is immediately apparent that they are the barbarians of these parts.

This exists in all things. Thus we see that locusts and worms on plants are green, and we see that the louse is black on a young man’s head, white if his hair whitens, red if it is dyed.
Our blackness, O people of the Zanj, is not different from the blackness of the Banu Sulaym and other Arab tribes we have mentioned.

And the very blackness of the Zanj is like the total whiteness of the white men. The same rules apply to the brown color of the children of mixed marriages, also on their appearance, their habits in eating and desires.

A poet when talking about Usaylim ibn al Alnaf al Asadi mentioned the blackness of the people of Yemen :
There is Usaylim, easily noticed by those searching
He belongs to the elite chiefs through his line of descent
Others then in fear of his royal birth clap their hands.
Black musk is applied to his hair as well as perfumed oil.
If the black Yemenites would make him a woolen cloak
They have to make it thin and wide.

A slave of the Bana Jada; being laughed at because of his black color said:
They ridicule me because of my black color. I answered that only very stupid men can do so. Because as much as my skin is black I am in character white.
I help friends in their needs as well as women traveling in their litters.
When I have to face a fight (litt: the lance) I am called father of Saraq.

The wife of Amr ibn Sha treated Irar ibn Amr badly. Because he was the son of a black women. Because of this he said the following on the children of Abyssinian and Zanj women:
Did she not notice that I’m grown up and humble
So that I do not answer anger with anger
Like the courageous I bow in silence
If a courageous man would find it proper he would bite deeply.
Her aim was to humiliate Irar
And those wanting to do so are very unjust.
Although he is dark
He has a very good figure
If you really are like me and have principles
Then be for him like the date butter which smoothens the skin.
If not get away even by horse, with provisions for 5 days without rest stops.

As regards the Indians, they are among the leaders in astronomy, mathematics in particular, they have Indian numerals, and medicine; they alone possess the secrets of the latter, and use them to practice some remarkable forms of treatment. They have the art of carving statues and painted figures. They possess the game of chess, which is the noblest of games and requires more judgment and intelligence than any other. They make Kedah swords, and excel in their use. They have splendid music, including that of the kankala, an instrument with a single string mounted on a gourd, which takes the place of the many stringed lute and cymbals. They know a number of sprightly dances.  To them belong the variety of arts from sword fighters to magicians and fumigators and medical skills. They posses a script capable of expressing the sounds of all languages as well as many numerals. They have a great deal of poetry, many long treatises, and a deep understanding of philosophy and letters; the book Kalila wa-Dimna originated with them. They are intelligent and courageous, and have more good qualities than the Chinese. Their sound judgment and sensible habits led them to invent pins, cork and toothpicks, the drape of clothes and the dyeing of hair. They are handsome, attractive and forbearing, their women are proverbial, and their country produces the matchless Indian aloes which are supplied to kings. They were the originators of the science of fikr by which a poison can be counteracted after it has been used, and of astronomical reckoning, subsequently adopted by the rest of the world. When Adam descended from Paradise, it was to their land that he made his way.

The Zanj also say : Among our good qualities are our good singers. As you can find among the slave girls from Sind. Also nobody is a better cook then the black slaves from Sind. Also moneychangers will never entrust their money then to those from Sind or their descendents as they are found to be better in those affairs, more alert and worthy of thrusting . One hardly ever finds a Greek or a Khorassan in a position of trust in a bank. When the bankers of Basra saw the excellent affairs that Faraj Abu Kub, a Sindi, had negotiated for his master, each of them took a Sindi assistant. They all wanted to make the profit his master had made. Caliph Sultan Abdelmalik ibn Mcrwan often said, “El Adgham is a master among all the Orientals.” This El Adgham is also mentioned by Abdullar ibn Khnazim, who calls him, “An Ethiopian, a black son of Ethiopia.

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And this is all that came to my mind about what the blacks could be proud about.
In former books we wrote of the pride of the Qahtan and later on if God whshes I will write on the pride of the Adnam against the Qahtan in much of what they said.


The complete text of this book here given was composed in the following way:
Taken from : http://www.cwo.com
These are the web-sides out of which I cut and pasted extracts from the book of Jahiz.
More extracts I took from books and articles.
-Bernard Lewis : Islam from the Prophet Muhammad to the capture of Constantinople
-G. Rotter ; Die Stellung des Negers in der islamisch-arabischen Gesellschaft bis zum XVI Jahrhundert
-Oscar Rescher, Excerpte und Übersetzungen aus den Schriften des Philologen und Dogmatikers Gahiz aus Bacra (150-250H) nebst noch unveroffentlichten Originaltexten Gahiz, Stuttgart 1931
-Rescher, Oskar: Orientalische Miszellen, Band 2, Konstantinopel (Stambul) 1926
-Susanne Enderwitz ; Gesellschaftlicher Rang und ethnische legitimation der arabische Schriftsteller Abu Utman al Gahiz (gest.868) uber die Africaner, Perser und Araber in der islamischen Gesellschaft
-Slaves and Slavery in Muslim Africa, vol 1 , Islam and the Ideology of Slavery

Finally I did find three complete translations of Jahiz book.
-Book of the Glory of the Black race translated by : Vincent J. Cornell
-The boast of the blacks over the whites translated by T. Khalidi in Islamic Quarterly.
-Guy Ducatez et Jacky Ducatez; Al Gahiz, Kitab Fahr as Sudan Ala l-bidan
After having found those I arranged all the extracts I had and filled in the missing text from the full translations. My text so will have the faults that cut and paste work brings, like differences in ways of writing  names from one extract to the other as well as the words Negro Black and Zanj become this way randomly used as every author translated differently. (My regrets)
I decided to put the whole text of this book on the inter-net instead of only those parts very relevant to East Africa as this is a book in defense of Black people.

When reading this book and the extracts from Jahiz other books who are given after this text one will see a striking difference. In his other works he speaks about the Zanj in a very racist way. This has made some authors think that he wrote this booklet on demand from higher authorities so as to win the loyalty of the blacks for the government. Jahiz was from Basra  in the years just before the big Zanj rebellion. A similar book in defense of the Turks is known from him.

Perceptions of Race and Color in Medieval and Classical Islamic Texts

The way that Arab and Persian scholars percieved race and color (including their own) in history was often very different than the way they do today…

(References to Zanj means specifically Black people from South of Ethiopia, including modern day Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Madagascar, Zimbabwe and even the Andaman Islands and possibly Southeast Asia (Orang Asli/”Negritos”, etc.)  The photos provided are of people from these areas.)


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Al Mubarrad: Al-Kamil (The Perfect One) (d898) Baghdad
Taken from: wn.com/Arabs_And_East_African_Sub-Saharan_Ancestory

Also called Mobarrad, full name Abu Al-‘Abbas Muhammad Ibn Yazid, is a book on grammar

What he (Fadl ibn al Abas) meant by: I am the green one; is the dark one, the black one. The Arabs used to take pride in their darkness and blackness and they had a distaste for a light complexion and they used to say that a light complexion was the complexion of the non-Arabs.


Sirat Delhemma (Story of Lady Delhemma)
(about 900 and later additions) Egypt
Taken from: Byzanthion revue internationale des études byzantines By Société belge d’études byzantines, 1935

Delhemma means officially Dhat al Himma meaning the women with the great hart. She is the hero in this story.

During an important battle between the Caliph of Baghdad and the Emperor of Constantinople a black called Ghilan from the army of Delhemma joins with his whole army the emperor, they win and Ghilan becomes in-charge of the Byzantine army because the emperor is wounded.
Later on totally unexpected Abd el Wahhab and Battal -who were thought to be dead- arrive with their army of Zendj, after having traversed the whole of Iraq. The Byzantines are defeated.


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Bundahishn (Creation of the Origins) (additions till 9th century)
a compilation, no author known. From Iran, Zoratostrian religion.
Taken from: Dan Shapira; Zoroastrian Sources on Black People in Arabica nr 49
Friedrich Max Miller; The Sacred Books of the East. Volume 5. Pahlavi Texts. Part 1

When Fredon (mythical hero) came, they (the black people) fled from the lands of Iran and settled on the coast of the sea. Now, through the invasion of the Arabs, they (the Zing-i-Siak posht (i.e. the black skinned negroes)) are again diffused through the country of Iran.

Note: in these last sentences allusion is made to the Blackness of both the original inhabitants of Iran, and of the Arabs.



Al Hajari: Kitab Ta’liqat wa al Nawadir: (book of rarities) ( 901)
Taken from: The Northern Hijaz in the writings of the Arab geographers, 800-1150; Abdullah Wohaibi

Al-Hajari records a debate in which al-Fur (Northern Hijaz [location of Islam’s holy cities]) figures as the habitat of al-Zunuj [Blacks]

Ibn al-Fakih al Hamadhani (903) Kitab al Buldan (Book of Countries) from Hamadan Iran’s ancient capital.
Taken from : http://www.colorq.org
Neville Chittick: East Africa and the Orient
N. Levtzion and J.F.P.Hopkins; Corpus of early Arabic Sources for West
African History.
Friedrich Storbeck; (1914) Mitteilungen des Seminars fur orientalische
Al Hamadani : Abrege du livre des pays
Serjeant; Society and Trade in South Arabia
A man of discernment said: The people of Iraq have sound minds, commendable passions, balanced natures, and high proficiency in every art, together with well-proportioned limbs, well-compounded humors, and a pale brown color, which is the most apt and proper color. They are the ones who are done to a turn in the womb. They do not come out with something between blonde, buff, blanched, and leprous coloring, such as the infants dropped from the wombs of the women of the Slavs and others of similar light complexion;…

…The people of the Magrib have the mules of Barbarie; the slave girls from Spain…

…According to Plato (Aflatun), there is no good faith with the Turks (waja). Neither is there in existence munificence (sakha) amongst the Byzantines (Rum); bashfulness (haya) amongst the Khazar; worry (and sadness) (ghamm) amongst the blacks (Zanj); valor (shaja’a) amongst the Saqaliba, and chastity (iffa) amongst the Sind…


zanj 02

Al-Mas’udi (916) Muruj al-Dhahab wa-Manadin al-Jawhar (Meadows of gold and mines of gems)
Born in Baghdad and died in Cairo.
The text is compiled from :
– Freeman-Grenville; Selected documents
– Ingrams; Zanzibar, its history and its people
– James de Verre Allen; Swahili origin,
– Basil Davidson; The African past
– Neville Chittick; East Africa and the Orient
– M. Guillain; Documents sur l’histoire, la geographie….
– Al-Mas’udi; Les Prairies d’or
– Swahilicoast.com
…Amr, son of Bahr el Djahiz wrote a book : On the superiority of the Blacks, and their battle with the Whites.  That author could bring in the authority of Homer who called the Ethiopians without blame, and putted at their table Jupiter and the Gods of the Olympus….

…To come back to the Zanj of Sofala and their kings, the name of the king of the country is Waklimi which means supreme lord; they give this title to their sovereign because he has been chosen to govern them justly. If he becomes tyrannical or strayed from the truth he is killed and his seed excluded from the throne for ever, for they claim that in thus conducting himself he ceases to be the son of the Master, that is to say of the king of heaven and earth. They call God by the name of Maklandjalu, which means supreme Master (er-rabb el-kebir)…

The Zanj speak elegantly, and they have orators in their own language. Often a ascetic (zahid) man of the country, will get up and address a large crowd exhorting them to draw near to their god and render him obedience; frightening them with his punishment and authority, recalling them to the example of their former kings and ancestors. They have no revealed law to turn to but the customs of their kings.


zanj 05

Buzurg ibn Shahriyar Persian sea captain (Kitab aja’ib al-Hind) (955) (The book of the wonders of india)
This is a book of sailors tales collected by Buzurg at Siraf (Persia) and Sohar (Oman), with little historical value. Every now and then the land of the Zanj gets mentioned. Here the list.

Sailors tale 31:
Ismailawaih told me, and several sailors who were with him, that in the year A.H. 310 (A.D.922) he left Oman in his ship to go to Quanbalu. A storm drove him towards Sofala and the Zanj coast. Seeing the coast we had reached, the captain said, and realizing that we were falling among cannibal Negroes we were certain what our faith would be, we made the ritual ablutions and turned our hearts towards God, saying for each other the prayers for the dead. The canoes of the Negroes surrounded us and brought us into the harbor. There we cast anchor and went ashore. They led us to their king. He was a young Negro, handsome and well set-up. He asked us who we were, and were we were going. We answered that we had come to his land.

You lie, he said. It was by no means here you meant to land. It is only that the winds have driven you here in spite of yourselves. When we had admitted that he spoke the truth, he said: Bring ashore your goods. Sell and buy, you have nothing to fear.

We brought all our bales ashore and began to trade, a trade which was excellent for us, without any restrictions or customs dues. We made the king a number of presents to which he replied with gifts of equal worth or ones even more valuable. There we staid several months. When the time to depart came, we asked his permission to go, and he agreed immediately. The goods we had bought were loaded and business was wound up. When everything was in order, and the king hearing of our intention to set sail, accompanied us to the shore with several of his people, got into one of the boats and came out to the ship with us. He even came on board with seven of his companions.

When I saw them there, I said to myself: In the Oman market this young king would certainly fetch thirty dinars, and his seven companions a hundred and sixty dinars the lot. Their clothes are worth twenty dinars at the lowest. One way or the other this would give us a profit of at least 3,000 dirhams, and without any trouble. Reflecting thus, I gave the crew their orders. They raised the sails and weighed anchor.

zanj 04

In the meantime the king was most agreeable to us, making us promise to come back again and promising us a good welcome when we did. When he saw the sails full with the wind and the ship began to move, his face changed. You are off he said. Well, I must say good-bye. And he wished to embark in the canoes which were tied up to the side. But we cut the ropes, and said to him: You will remain with us, we shall take you to our own land. There we shall reward you for all the kindness you have shown to us.

Strangers he said, When you fell upon our shores, my people wished to eat you and pillage your goods, as they have already done to others like you. But I protected you, and asked nothing from you. As a token of my goodwill I even came down to bid you farewell in your own ship. Treat me then as justice demands, and let me return to my own land.
But we paid no attention to his words. As the wind got up, the coastline disappeared from sight. Then night wrapped us in her veils, and we reached the open sea.

When the day came, the king and his companions were put with the other slaves whose number reached 200 head. He was not treated differently from his companions in captivity. The king said not a word and did not even open his mouth. He behaved as if we were strangers to him and as if we did not know him. When he got to Oman, the slaves were sold, and the king with them.

Now, several years after, sailing from Oman towards Quanbalu, the wind again drove us towards the coast of Sofala on the Zanj coast, and we arrived precisely at the same place. The Negroes saw us, and their canoes surrounded us, and we recognized each other. Fully certain we should perish this time, terror stuck us dumb. We made the ritual ablutions is silence, repeated the prayer of death, and said farewell to each other. The Negroes seized us, and took us to the king’s dwelling and made us go in. Imagine our surprise, it was the same king that we had known, seated on his throne, just as we had left him there. We prostrated ourselves before him, overcome, and had not the strength to raise ourselves up.
Ah he said, here are my old friends. Not one of us was capable of replying. He went on: Come, raise your heads, I give you the aman (save conduct) for yourself and for your goods. Some raised their heads, others had not the strength, and were overcome with shame. But he showed himself gentle and gracious until we had all raised our heads, but without daring to look him in the face, so strongly did remorse and fear affect us. But when we had been reassured by his save conduct, we finally came to our senses, and he said: Ah traitors. How have you treated me after all I did for you! And each one of us called out: Mercy, oh King! be merciful to us!

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I will be merciful to you, he said. Go on, as you did last time, with your business of selling and buying. You may trade in full liberty. We could not believe our ears, we feared it was nothing but a trick to make us bring our goods to shore. None the less we disembarked them, and came and brought him a present of enormous value. But he refused it and said: You are not worthy for me to accept a present from you. I will not soil my property with anything that comes from your hands.

After that we did our business in peace. When the time to go came, we asked permission to embark. He gave it. At the moment of departure, I went to inform him. Go, he said, and may God protect you! Oh king, I replied, you have showered your bounty upon us, and we have been ungrateful and traitorous to you. But how did you escape and return to your country?
He answered: After you had sold me in Oman, my purchaser took me to a town called Basrah,- (and he described it). There I learned to pray and to fast, and certain parts of the Koran. My master sold me to another man who took me to the country of the king of the Arabs, called Baghdad-( and he described Baghdad). In this town I learnt to speak correctly. I completed my knowledge of the Koran and prayed with the men in the mosques. I saw the Caliph, who is called al-Muqtadir (908-32). I was in Baghdad for a year and more, when there came a party of men from Khorasan mounted on camels. Seeing a large crowd, I asked where all these people were going. I was told: To Mecca. What is Mecca? I asked. There, I was answered, is the house of god to which Muslims make the pilgrimage. And I was told the history of the temple. I said to myself that I should do well to follow the caravan. My, master, to whom I told all this, did not whish to go with them or to let me go. But I found a way to escape his watchfulness and to mix in the crowd of pilgrims. On the road I became a servant of them. They gave me food to eat and got for me the two cloths needed for the ihram (the ritual garments used for the pilgrimage). Finally, under their guidance, I performed all the ceremonies of the pilgrimage.

Not daring to go back to Baghdad, for fear that my master would kill me, I joined up with another caravan which was going to Cairo. I offered my services to the travelers, who carried me on their camels and shared their food with me. When I got to Cairo I saw a great river which is called the Nile. I asked: Where does it come from? They answered: Its source is in the land of the Zanj. And where? Near a large town called Aswan, which is on the frontier of the land of the blacks.

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With this information, I followed the banks of the Nile, going from one town to another, asking alms, which was not refused to me. I fell, however, among a company of blacks who grabbed me. They seized on me, and put me among the servants with a load which was to heavy for me to carry. I fled and fell into the hands of another company which seized me and sold me. I escaped again, and went on in this manner, until, after a series of similar adventures, I found myself in the country which adjoins the land of the zanj. There I put on a disguise. Of all the terrors I had experienced since I left Cairo, there was none equal to that which I felt as I approached my own land. For, I said to myself, a new king has no doubt taken my place on the throne and commands the army. To regain power is not an easy thing. If I make myself known or if anyone recognizes me, I shall be taken to the new king and killed at once. Or perhaps one of his favorites will cut of my head to get in his favor.

So, in prey of mortal terror, I went on my way at night, and stayed hid during the day. When I reached the sea, I embarked on a ship; and after stopping at various places, I disembarked at night on the shore of my country. I asked an old women: Is the king who rules here a just king? She answered: My son, we have no king but god. And the good women told me how the king had been carried off. I pretended the greatest astonishment at her story, as if it had not concerned me and events which I knew very well. The people of the kingdom, she said, have agreed not to have another king until they have certain news of the former one. For the diviners have told them that he is alive and in health, and safe in the land of the Arabs.
When the day came, I went into the town and walked towards my palace. I found my family just as I had left them, but plunged into grief. My people listened to the account of my story with surprise and joy. Like myself, they embraced the religion of Islam. Thus I returned into possession of my sovereignty, a month before you came. And here I am, happy and satisfied with the grace God has given me and mine, of knowing the precepts of Islam, the true faith, prayers, fasting, the pilgrimage, and what is permitted and what is forbidden: for no one else in the land of the Zanj has obtained a similar favor. And if I have forgiven you, it is because you were the first cause of the purity of my faith. But there is still one sin on my conscience which I pray god to take away from me.

What is this thing, oh king? I asked. It is, he said, That I left my master, when I left Baghdad, without asking him his permission, and that I did not return to him. If I were to meet an honest man, I would ask him to take the price of my purchase to my master. If there were among you a really good man, if you were truly upright men, I would give you a sum of money to give him, a sum ten times what he paid as damages for the delay. But you are nothing but traitors and tricksters.

We said farewell to him. Go, he said, and if you return, I shall not treat you otherwise than I have done. You will receive the best welcome. And the Muslims may know that they may come here to us, as to brothers, Muslims like themselves. As for accompanying you to your ship, I have reasons for not doing so. And on that we parted.


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Az-Zubaidi; (d989) Spain
Tabaqat an-nahwiyin wa-l-lugawiyin li-Abi. (The Grammarians on the Order of the Language)
Taken from: Fuat Sezgin; Geschichte des arabischen Schrifttums
Complete name: Bakr Muhammad b. al-Hasan az-Zubaidi

When quoting Abu Muslim the teacher of Caliph Abdalmalik b. Marwan (d705)
Grammarians keep themselves mostly busy with the language of the Zanj and the Rum (Byzantine Romans)


zanj 10

al-Sahib ibn Abbad: Al Tadhkira fi ‘l-Usul al-Khamsa (d995) (Iran; Wazir from the Buyids)
Taken from : Charles Lindholm : The middle east: Tradition and Change.
His full name is Ismail ibn Abbad ibn al­Abbas al­Taleqani (Abul­Qasim), or Sahib al-Talqani, Abu al-Qasim Ismail ibn Abbad better known as al­Sahib ibn Abbad / Diwan al-sahib ibn `Abbad

Since God created tallness and shortness and the blackness of the Zanj and the whiteness of the Greek, it is not right that men should be blamed or punished for these qualities, since God neither enjoyed nor forbade them.


zanj 09

Muhammad Bal’ami: Tarjami i Tarikh Tabari (Translation of Tabari’s History) (10th cent) from Persia
Taken from : bc.edu/

Ham is identified as the father of the Blacks, Ethiopians, Zanj, Hindus, unbelievers, as well as kings and tyrants. From Japhet came Turks, Slavs Gog and Magog and various others.
In one of the versions of the manuscript there is no curse of Ham at all, in the other both Ham and Japhet are cursed.



zanj 13

Akhbar al-zaman (1000) (History of the Ages and Those Whom Events have Annihilated) writer unknown. (sometimes attributed to Al-Masudi)
Taken from : the French translation: L’Abrege des merveilles (1898)

The Zendj have eloquent orators. Those who are man of God dress in tiger skins, and they hold in hand a stick with which they assemble the people, and they preach morning to evening, standing, calling to God, telling about the present king and the former ones.


zanj 11

Abu Hilal al Askari: Jamharat al-Amthal (Collection of Proverbs) (d1005 CE)
Taken from: alwaraq.net

The people with the best breath are the Zinj who also have the most white teeth.




Al Baghdadi; Al-Fark Bain al-Firak (Moslem Schisms and Sects) (d1037) (northeast Persia)
Taken from: Shorter encyclopaedia of Islam by Sir Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb, Johannes Hendrik Kramers,

The followers of Babak (Iranian-Zoroastrian freedom fighter against the Arabs) make the founder of their religion a prince of theirs who lived in pre- Islamic times, called Sharwin Whose father was of the Zandj whereas his mother was the daughter of a Persian king.

Usul al-Din (Basics of Religion)
Taken from: Shaykh Ahmad ibn Muhammad, A History of the People of Hadeeth
Full name: Abd al-Kahir b. Tahir, Abu Mansur al-Shafi`I al-Baghdadi

(All the people the companions of the Prophet conquered were called: Ahl ul-Hadeeth, )
It is clear that the people of the lands of ar-Room, al-Jazeerah, ash-Shaam, Adharbayjaan (Azerbaijan), Baabul-Abwaab and others which were conquered were all upon the madhhab of the Ahl ul-Hadeeth. Also the inhabitants of the lands of Ifreeqiyyah, Andalus and all the countries behind the Western Sea, were from the Ahl ul-Hadeeth. Also the people of the lands of al-Yaman upon the Zanj coastline (Zanzibar) were all from the Ahl ul-Hadeeth.



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R. Hai Gaon (d1038) Shetaroth(Formulary or Book of legal Deeds) (Hebrew mss) from Babylonia
Taken from: J.R.S.A.S 1935 by A. Marmorstein.

Document No. VII, contains a formulary for the acquisition of a slave, not a rare event among Jews. This document throws light on the origin and race of these slaves bought by Jews and kept in their households. Five nationalities are enumerated, namely Hindus, Slavs, Byzantines or Romans, Lybians, and Zaagaah (from Zanzibar)



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Al Marvazi: Kitab Taba’i al Hayawan (1120) (Book on Animals) from Persia.
Taken from: Marvazi on China, the Turks and India 1942

Complete name: Sharaf al-Zaman Tahir MarvaziAlso called: Al Marwazi
He took his information from a missing geographical work from Al-Jayhani

On the Habasha:
The Habasha (Ethiopians) are a category under which come different classes of people such as the Nubians, Zanj, etc.. Their territories consist of extensive countries with a wide-stretching periphery the extremity of which ends where habitation ends and cultivation and procreation ceases…..

As for the heat in the lands of Habasha and Zanj, it reaches the extreme limit in scorching. They find beauty in the intensity of blackness and abhor whiteness and hold that a white man cannot be healthy. There are some among them who eat the whites. Some people prefer the blacks to the whites. What led them to this assumption was the fact that they had seen many Arabs and Indians who possessed an abundant share of spiritual and physical gifts and whose complexion was blackish, as they also had seen that, if some whites had black moles, it added to their beauty and pleasantness….

It is said in the Tawarikh (Histories) that one of the kings of Khorasan crossed the Oxus in order to fight the Turks. In his troops there were some Zanj. When the Turks sallied forth to meet them, they saw the Zanj, whose appearance frightened them, for they imagined that they were demons or some other kind of supernatural beings. So they put to flight and retreated without fighting. When the kings of Khorasan were informed of this they increased the numbers of Zanj and Habasha and put them forward in fighting the Turks. But finally the Turks got accustomed to seeing the Zanj, and killing one of them saw that his blood was red. So they said; His blood is like human blood and so are his limbs, and their fear ceased.
In the Tarikh Muluk al-Turk (History of Turkish Kings) it is related that one of them called B.K.J. became related by marriage to the king called Jabbuya. Among the dowry and numerous gifts which he dispatched to him was a Zanj porter who was a wonder among the white. They used to bring him to their assemblies and express their astonishment in looking at his appearance and color. He possessed (great) sagacity, power of thought and valor, and he succeeded in performing many great deeds. The king attached him to his person and his station continuously grew in elevation and solidity. Finally he attacked the king, killed him, occupied his place and seized most of their provinces. He assumed the title of Qara-Khan, which no one had held before him, for it means Black Khaqan. His dignity was great, so whenever the Turks after him wished to honor a king they addressed him as Qara-khan, in Turkish qara being black and khaqan Supreme lord. So Qara-khan means Black Khaqan.



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Al Idrisi (1150) (Kitab Ruyar) (Book of Roger) written in Sicily

Close to the above island of Zanedj ( Jazirat min az Zanj )one finds another, with the town of Kahua (Kua on Juani Island) on which the people are black. They are called Nerhin. They wear the dress called Azar and the Fouta. They are fierce people, brave, and always walking armed. Sometimes they get into their boats and attack merchant ships, of which they take all merchandise. Only their own countrymen they leave to go home, they do not fear any enemies.



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Al Garnati: al mu’rid an Ba’d Ayaib Al Magrib (In praise of some wonders of the Maghrib) (d1169) from Andalusia
Taken from: the original translation

And they are saved from the redness of the Rum, the Slaves and the Russians, and the blackness of the al-Habas and Al Zang and al-Hind; and the cruelty of the Turcs and the ugliness of Sind as well as their shortness. …

…Physical and moral peculiarities of some countries:
One says that the Byzantines are blond; the Zany, black; the Turks, robust; Chinese, the ugly ones; those of Gog and Magog, short, and the Ethiopians crazy.



zanj 16

Ibn al Jawzi: Tanwir al-Ghabash fi fadl al-Sudan wa al-Habash (d1200) (The Illumination of the darkness on the Merits of the Blacks and Ethiopians). from Baghdad
Taken from: Imran Hamza Alawiye, Ibn Jawzi’s Apologia on Behalf of the Black People and Their Status in Islam

In his introduction:
I saw a group of the best Ethiopians broken-hearted and sad because of the darkness of their color. So I informed them that deference is based upon the doing of good, not upon physical beauty. This book, which is concerned with many of the Ethiopians and the Sudan, I dedicated to them.

Chapter 2
The cause of the darkness of their color
The author said, as far as color is concerned, it would appear that there is no obvious cause for it. Nevertheless we have already reported that after the death of Nuh, his sons divided the earth. The person who divided the earth among them was Falagh b. Abir. Sam’s sons settled in the centre of the earth, so blackness and whiteness existed among them. Yafit’s sons’ settled in the (direction of) northerly and easterly winds, thus a red and ruddy complexion existed among them. Ham’s sons however, settled in the (direction of) southerly and westerly winds, and so their color changed.
However it is neither true nor authentic that when Nuh’s body appeared naked and Ham did not cover it, Nuh cursed him and consequently Ham became black……

Chapter 4
The kingdoms of the black people and their extent.
Abd’l Rahman b. Muhammad al Qazaz informs us on the authority of al-Nanur b. Hilal that he said; The earth is 24,000 farsakhs and of these 12,000 belong to the blacks, 8,000 to the people of al-Rum, 3,000 to the Persians and 1,000 to the Arabs……

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Chapter 5
The virtues combined in black peoples temperaments.
Among these virtues are strength and willpower, and that produces bravery. We remember the Abyssinians for their generosity, excellent manners, inoffensiveness, cheerfulness, eloquence and being well-spoken, ease of expression and pleasantness of diction……

Chapter 19
The most brilliant in knowledge among the black people
Among those from Mecca was Ato b. Rabah, also called Abu Rabah. He embraced islam….He destingwished himself by his knowledge and by his piety…..
His name was Abu Thabit b. Dinar Abu Yahya, and he was a freedman of the tribe of Asad Kufi. He was an eminent scholar. He learned under Ibn Abbas and Ibn Umar…. He was a very religious man, and he once spend a 100,000 dirhams on the poor. He was a black man.
Yazid b. Abu Habid: He was an eminent scholar….
Makhul al-Shami: Abu abd Allah was an eminent jurist. He belonged to Amr b. Sa’id b. al Asi, who gave him to a man from the tribe of Hudhayl in Egypt. He was set free there. Makhul said: I did not leave Egypt until I was certain that I had learned all that there was to be learned. Then I traveled to Medina, and I did not leave Medina until I was certain that I had learned all that there was to be learned there….
Ibrahim b. al-Mahdi b. al-Mansur
He was known as Abu Ishaq. He was a very black man, very learned and eloquent, and an excellent poet. He was acknowledged as caliph. (by the tribe of al-Abbas only)….He died in the year 741AD and the caliph al Mu-tasin led the funeral prayer.
Abd Allah b. Hatim ‘l-Sulami
He was a great emir of Khurasan. He was a very knowledgeable man. Many wars happened during his period.

Chapter 20
The (black) poets and those among them who imitated poetry.
Among the (black people’s) great poets is Antara b. al-Shadad. His mother was a black Zanj. He composed many outstanding poems….
Among their poets was Suhaym, a slave from the tribe of al-Hashas….
Among(the black poets) was Nasib Abu Mihjan Abu Mihjan the poet was the freedman of Abd al Aziz b. Marwan and he was a blackman….Muhammad b. Abu Mansur informs us:….A Zanj women came out of one of the camel litters and set down on the prepared carpets. Then a Zanj man came out and sat down. Then a man leading a camel passed by us, singing the following line: Would like that I could be reunited with Zaynab before the caravan departs. Tell her, even if you are bored with me, my hart will never tire of you. Suddenly the Zanji women jumped on the Zanji man, hit him, beat him and said; You have revealed my identity to people. God will expose you similarly. I said ; Who is this? They said to me: That is the poet Nasib and this is Zaynab…..

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Abu Dulana the poet: (d777AD) His name was Zand b. al-Jun. He was a freedman of the tribe of Asad…..Muhammad b. Abd al Baqi informed us on the authority of Ibn Jabir that he said: I entered a Zanj town and I saw a Zanj women grinding rice and crying. She was saying something which I did not understand. I asked a learned man and he said that she was saying:
I cast my eyes right and left
But I did not see anyone who my heart could love except God.
I came to you in humility, with deeds you already knew of,
And by your generosity you will forgive my sins.
Your hands are not hidden even if the (list of) sins is long,
And your generosity spreads East and West….

Chapter 22
The pious and ascetic people from among (the blacks)
Among those whose names are known, apart from the aformented companions (of the Prophet) are:
Abu Mu’awiya al-Aswad who is also called al-Yaman Turk Tursus….the freedman of the Abu Ja’far, was the commander of the faithful, and he used to say to the people; Make use of me, for I’m your servant. I was purchased with the spoils of war….
Dhu’l-Nun b. Ibrahim Abu al-Fayd al Masri. He was of Nubian origin….
Abu al-Khayr al-Tinati: He lived in al-Taynat which was a village in Antioch….
Muqbil al-Aswad….
Hamid al Aswad (in Mecca)….
Suhayb al Aswad (a black slave in Mecca)….
Those religious black people and ascetics whose names were not known……
A black religious man from Abadan…. There was a Zanj in Abadan with peppery hair and he was living in a rough abode. Taking some things with me, I asked as to his whereabouts. When he saw me he smiled and pointed to the ground with his hand. I saw some shining dirhams and dinars around me. Then he said to me, Give me what you have with you. I gave him and fled, frightened by his behavior.

zanj 20

Chapter 23
The religious and virtuous women from among the black people.
Maymuna ‘l-Sawda. (from Kufa)….
Sha’wana from the tribe of al-Alba…..
Tuhiyya ‘l-Nubiyya…..
(many of whom the name is unknown)
Chapter 24
Those who preferred black slave girls to white ones and those who loved them, and those who died for their love of them.
….. My father said to me: There was a man in Basra from al-Mahalaba who was in love with a black Zanj women who belonged to his neighbor. He kept putting pressure on her master until (he allowed) him to buy her. She greatly occupied his mind at the expense of his family. A group of them including his brothers, criticized him for that but he ignored what they said…..
(this is a chapter filled with love poems)
Ibn al-Marzuban reported on the authority of al-Harith that he said, Al-Farazdaq took a Zanji slave girl to be his concubine, and she bore him a girl. He loved her and he would praise the Zangi race. ….



zanj 21

Abu al-Makarim: Tarikh al-Kana’is wa al-Adyirah‎, Full name: Al-Mu’taman Abu al-Makarim Sa’d Allah Jirjis ibn Mas’ud

(History of Churches and Monasteries) (1200) an Egyptian of Armenian descent
Taken from the translation by Evetts, Alfred Joshua Butler: Abu Salih: The Churches and Monasteries of Egypt and Some Neighboring Countries

Mahomet [Prophet Muhammad sA’aws] also said emphatically : God is among the protected people, the people of the desert, the blacks, the men with curly hair. They are related (to the Arabs) and akin to them, in distinction from all the other protected peoples.



zanj 23

Ibn Manzur: Lisan al-Arab (1290) (about the Arab language) from Tunis died in Cairo
Taken from: Arabic English Lexicon By Edward William Lane

It is said that he (Fadl ibn al Abas) meant that he is from the purest of the Arabs because most Arabs are black-skinned.

…kinky hair was the hair Arabs had and that lank hair was the hair of the Persian.

zanj 24

Suyuti (1445-d1505) From Cairo
Full name: Abd al-Rahman ibn Kamal al-Din Abi Bakr ibn Muhammad ibn Sabiq al-Din, Jalal al-Din al-Misri al-Suyuti al-Shafi`i al-Ash`ari, also known as Ibn al-Asyuti
He was the mujtahid imam and renewer of the tenth Islamic century, foremost hadith master, jurist, Sufi, philologist, and historian, he authored works in virtually every Islamic science.

His name is spelled in at least 10 different ways on the Internet. He wrote 560 books, 723 according to others.
Raf’ Sha’n al-Hubshan (The raising of the status of the Ethiopians; to defend the blacks against the accusations made against them).
Taken from: Akbar Muhammad; The image of Africans in Arabic Literature.

Praise be to Allah Who preferred some people to others…..I composed this treatise on the virtues of the Ethiopians …..and I did not exclude from it the important instruction (fawa’id) and gems (which) the eager enquirer needs…..I read a treatise on this subject by …. Ibn al-Jawzi entitled Tanwir al Ghabash. But I found It lacking and incomplete. Indeed, there is scope for more (information) and the addition of the beautiful (details) that eluded him. This is an abridgement of and a supplement to his treatise. Due to its completeness it shines like a full moon compared with that (of Ibn al-Jawzi which is like) a crescent.

The contents of the work (in 110 chapters):

1. On the Traditions Concerning Them (Ethiopians) E.g.: A hadith on the authority of Abu Hurayra in which the Prophet defines the descendants of Shem as the Arabs, the Persians, and the Byzantines, the descendants of Japheth as the Turks, the Slavs, and Gog and Magog, and the descendants of Ham as the Copts, the Berbers and the Sudan.

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2. On the revealed (Quranic) Verses about Them.

3. On Quranic Terms of Ethiopian (Geez) Origin.

4. On the Emigration to Ethiopia, the Emigrants, the Conversion of Amr b. al-As and the Negus Betrothal of Umm Habiba to the Prophet….

5. On some (35) prominent (good, pious) Ethiopian Personages. (important here are the najashi = Ethiopian emperor and Bilal) The najashi section begins with a long discussion on his road to power in his father’s court, continues with quotations from his correspondence with the Prophet, and ends with his recognition of Muhammad as the messenger of God and the latter’s prayers for him as for a departed, distinguished Muslim.

6. On the Peculiarities and Good Qualities Which They Possess

7. Some previously considered Matters.(examples; the reason of the rising of the Nile in Egypt is heavy rain in the land of al-habasha and also Egypt will be destroyed due to drying up of the Nile and also Mecca will be destroyed by the Ethiopians)

8. Epilogue: concerning the Desirability of marrying Concubines and the fear of Abandoning (i.e., not marrying) virtuous slaves.

Taken from: The African diaspora in the Mediterranean lands of Islam By John O. Hunwick, Eve Troutt Powell

As for the blackness of their skin, Ibn al-Jawzi said: It is evident that they were created as they are without any apparent reason. However, we narrate (the following account): The children of Noah divided up the earth and the children of Shem settled at the centre of the earth and they had amongst them both darkness of skin and whiteness The sons of Japheth settled in a northerly and in an easterly direction, and they had amongst them both redness and blondness. The sons of Ham settled in the south and in the west, and their colors changed.

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Ibn al-Jawzi said: As for what is related about Noah’s nakedness being exposed and ham not covering it and being cursed this is something not proven and it is not correct.

Al-Jalal al-Suyuti said:

I say: This is supported by what Umm al-Fadl informed me of through (my) study (with her, saying) Abu Ishaq al-Shasi told us (saying) Awf b. Qasama told us on the authority of Zuhayr who said:

I heard al-Ash’ari say:

The Messenger of God – may God bless him and grant him peace – said: Adam was created from a handful (of earth) which (God) took from all parts of the world. Hence his offspring
turned out according to the earth (they were made form); some came out red, others white, others black, some where easy-going, others downcaste, some were evil and others good. This is a sound hadith published by al-Hakim in al-Mustadrak, and it is to be relied upon in
(the matter of) the blackness of their colour, for it is a reversion to the clay from which they were created.

One of his works is called:
al-Mutawakkili fima warada fi al-Qur’an bi al-lugha al-Habashiyya wa al-Farisiyya wa al-Rumiyya wa al-Hindiyya wa al-Siryaniyya wa al-`Ibraniyya wa al-Nabatiyya wa al-Qibtiyya wa al-Turkiyya wa al-Zanjiyya wa al-Barbariyya
(My reliance concerning what has been mentioned in the Qur’an in Ethiopian, Farsi, Greek, Hindi, Syriac, Hebrew, Nabatean, Coptic, Turkic, Zanj-language, and Berber)

Mutawakkili is the Caliph who commanded that he compiled a list of Quranic words that are to be found in the speech of the Ethiopians, Persians, or any people other then the Arab. In it he lists 108 words from 11 languages. It is organized according to language and for each language in textual order of the Quran. He made also a similar list in an other book of his with 124 foreign words, and a third is in his al-Itqan fi ‘ulum al-Quran which for different reasons is mentioned here too.

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Suyuti did not get into linguistic research himself, he copied what was written on the subject in former centuries.
Taken from: Bell, William, Yancy;The Mutawakkili of as-Suyuti

The report of what appears (in the Quran) in the language of the Blacks (Zanj)
(Hasb Jahannam): Ibn Abi Hatim, on the authority of Abdallah Ibn Abbas, concerning God’s expression, hasab jahannam it means fuel for Gehenna in the language of the Blacks (Zanj).

(Al Minsaa):  Ibn al-Jauzi related that al-minsaa means staff in the language of the Blacks (Zanj).

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Arya Dharma (The Noble Way) a/k/a Buddhism: An Afro-Islamic Inspiration? (6 of 6)

arya dharma 02

The statues of ancient Buddhas of the East depicted him as having woolly hair- always shown in cornrows, or “peppercorn” texture of small tight curls. These statues also clearly show him to have had Africoid facial features- full nose and lips. In most ancient temples throughout Asia, he is shown as jet Black. In fact, in many ancient temples of Asia and India, statues of the gods and goddesses have Africoid features with woolly hair in the peppercorn style, while some even have dreadlocks. These pictures of Buddha portray him in no uncertain terms as a Negro with kinky, coiled hair, a flat nose and full lips.

Source:  https://selfuni.wordpress.com/2015/09/23/original-african-buddha/

The mid-twentieth century scholar, Hamid Abdul Qadir postulates that the Prophet Dhu’l-Kifl, meaning “the one from Kifl,” mentioned twice in the Quran  as patient and good, refers to Shakyamuni Buddha. Qadir explains that “Kifl” is the Arabicized form of Kapila, short for Kapilavastu. It should be remembered that the consonant ‘p’ is not present in Arabic, and the nearest one to it is ‘fa’. Hence, Kapeel transliterated into Arabic becomes Kifl.

He also proposes that the Qur’anic mention of the fig tree (At-Tin 1-5) refers to Buddha as well, since he attained to enlightenment at the foot of one.

Read more at “The Buddha:  An Islamic Prophet?

Arya Dharma (The Noble Way) a/k/a Buddhism: An Afro-Islamic Inspiration? (5 of 6)

arya dharma 03

The statues of ancient Buddhas of the East depicted him as having woolly hair- always shown in cornrows, or “peppercorn” texture of small tight curls. These statues also clearly show him to have had Africoid facial features- full nose and lips. In most ancient temples throughout Asia, he is shown as jet Black. In fact, in many ancient temples of Asia and India, statues of the gods and goddesses have Africoid features with woolly hair in the peppercorn style, while some even have dreadlocks. These pictures of Buddha portray him in no uncertain terms as a Negro with kinky, coiled hair, a flat nose and full lips.

Source:  https://selfuni.wordpress.com/2015/09/23/original-african-buddha/

The mid-twentieth century scholar, Hamid Abdul Qadir postulates that the Prophet Dhu’l-Kifl, meaning “the one from Kifl,” mentioned twice in the Quran  as patient and good, refers to Shakyamuni Buddha. Qadir explains that “Kifl” is the Arabicized form of Kapila, short for Kapilavastu. It should be remembered that the consonant ‘p’ is not present in Arabic, and the nearest one to it is ‘fa’. Hence, Kapeel transliterated into Arabic becomes Kifl.

He also proposes that the Qur’anic mention of the fig tree (At-Tin 1-5) refers to Buddha as well, since he attained to enlightenment at the foot of one.

Read more at “The Buddha:  An Islamic Prophet?

Arya Dharma (The Noble Way) a/k/a Buddhism: An Afro-Islamic Inspiration? (4 of 6)

arya dharma 04

The statues of ancient Buddhas of the East depicted him as having woolly hair- always shown in cornrows, or “peppercorn” texture of small tight curls. These statues also clearly show him to have had Africoid facial features- full nose and lips. In most ancient temples throughout Asia, he is shown as jet Black. In fact, in many ancient temples of Asia and India, statues of the gods and goddesses have Africoid features with woolly hair in the peppercorn style, while some even have dreadlocks. These pictures of Buddha portray him in no uncertain terms as a Negro with kinky, coiled hair, a flat nose and full lips.

Source:  https://selfuni.wordpress.com/2015/09/23/original-african-buddha/

The mid-twentieth century scholar, Hamid Abdul Qadir postulates that the Prophet Dhu’l-Kifl, meaning “the one from Kifl,” mentioned twice in the Quran  as patient and good, refers to Shakyamuni Buddha. Qadir explains that “Kifl” is the Arabicized form of Kapila, short for Kapilavastu. It should be remembered that the consonant ‘p’ is not present in Arabic, and the nearest one to it is ‘fa’. Hence, Kapeel transliterated into Arabic becomes Kifl.

He also proposes that the Qur’anic mention of the fig tree (At-Tin 1-5) refers to Buddha as well, since he attained to enlightenment at the foot of one.

Read more at “The Buddha:  An Islamic Prophet?

Arya Dharma (The Noble Way) a/k/a Buddhism: An Afro-Islamic Inspiration? (3 of 6)

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The statues of ancient Buddhas of the East depicted him as having woolly hair- always shown in cornrows, or “peppercorn” texture of small tight curls. These statues also clearly show him to have had Africoid facial features- full nose and lips. In most ancient temples throughout Asia, he is shown as jet Black. In fact, in many ancient temples of Asia and India, statues of the gods and goddesses have Africoid features with woolly hair in the peppercorn style, while some even have dreadlocks. These pictures of Buddha portray him in no uncertain terms as a Negro with kinky, coiled hair, a flat nose and full lips.

Source:  https://selfuni.wordpress.com/2015/09/23/original-african-buddha/

The mid-twentieth century scholar, Hamid Abdul Qadir postulates that the Prophet Dhu’l-Kifl, meaning “the one from Kifl,” mentioned twice in the Quran  as patient and good, refers to Shakyamuni Buddha. Qadir explains that “Kifl” is the Arabicized form of Kapila, short for Kapilavastu. It should be remembered that the consonant ‘p’ is not present in Arabic, and the nearest one to it is ‘fa’. Hence, Kapeel transliterated into Arabic becomes Kifl.

He also proposes that the Qur’anic mention of the fig tree (At-Tin 1-5) refers to Buddha as well, since he attained to enlightenment at the foot of one.

Read more at “The Buddha:  An Islamic Prophet?