The Earth Will Swallow You: Fracking & Man-Made Earthquakes

Do ye feel secure that He Who is in heaven will not cause you to be swallowed up by the earth when it shakes?

– Qur-an 67.16

According to the Gutenberg-Richter Relation, a series of small earthquakes suggests that a larger one may take place in the same area. Ten 2.0s suggest that there may be a 3.0. Ten 3.0s suggest that there may be a 4.0.

Until 2008, Oklahoma experienced an average of one to two earthquakes of 3.0 magnitude or greater each year. (Magnitude-3.0 earthquakes tend to be felt, while smaller earthquakes may be noticed only by scientific equipment or by people close to the epicenter.) In 2009, there were twenty. The next year, there were forty-two. In 2014, there were five hundred and eighty-five, nearly triple the rate of California. Including smaller earthquakes in the count, there were more than five thousand. This year, [as of April 2015] there has been an average of two earthquakes a day of magnitude 3.0 or greater.

Then, do they not look at what is before them and what is behind them of the heaven and earth? If We should will, We could cause the earth to swallow them

-Qur-an 34.9

Hydraulic Fracturing (“Fracking”)

the process of drilling into the earth and then pummeling rocks with a high-pressure mixture of water and other ingredients to released gas trapped inside

In recent years, other states with oil and gas exploration have also seen an unusual number of earthquakes. State authorities quickly suspected that the earthquakes were linked to disposal wells. In Youngstown, Ohio, in 2011, after dozens of smaller quakes culminated in a 4.0, a nearby disposal well was shut down, and the earthquakes stopped. Around the same time, in Arkansas, a series of earthquakes associated with four disposal wells in the Fayetteville Shale led to a ban on disposal wells near related faults. Earthquakes were also noted in Colorado, Kansas, and Texas. There, too, relevant disposal wells were shut down or the volume of fluid injected was reduced and the earthquakes abated.

Although disposal wells have been used for decades, the new dewatering process has led to a dramatic increase in how much water is being disposed of. (In the state, the water used in the initial stage of fracking accounts for less than ten per cent of the water pumped down disposal wells.) In Oklahoma today, an average of about ten barrels of water comes up for every barrel of oil. Holland said, “We’re talking about billions of barrels, and it has to go somewhere.” Todd Halihan, a professor of geology at Oklahoma State University, in Stillwater, told me, “We’re injecting the equivalent of two Lake Hefners”—Oklahoma City’s four-square-mile reservoir—“into the ground each year, and we don’t really understand where that water is going.

Recently, a 4.2 and a 4.0 and about a dozen smaller quakes shook Cushing, Oklahoma, a town of several thousand people that is known as the Pipeline Crossroads of the World; fifty-four million barrels of oil are stored there underground. A well near Cushing had been drilled into the bedrock. “Is that a bad place for an earthquake to occur?” Halihan said. “You bet it is.”

[A rich man’s] people said to him, “Do not exult. Indeed, Allah does not like the exultant…

And desire not corruption in the land. Indeed, Allah does not like corrupters.”

Did he not know that Allah had destroyed before him of generations those who were greater than him in power and greater in accumulation [of wealth]? But the criminals, about their sins, will not be asked.

And We caused the earth to swallow him and his home. And there was for him no company to aid him other than Allah , nor was he of those who [could] defend themselves.

– Qur-an 28.76-81

Sinkholes form from human activity, such as the collapse of abandoned mines and salt cavern storage in salt domes in places like Louisiana, Mississippi and Texas. More commonly, sinkholes occur in urban areas due to water main breaks or sewer collapses when oldpipes give way. They can also occur from the overpumping and extraction of groundwater and subsurface fluids.

Sinkholes can also form when natural water-drainage patterns are changed and new water-diversion systems are developed. Some sinkholes form when the land surface is changed, such as when industrial and runoff-storage ponds are created; the substantial weight of the new material can trigger an underground collapse of supporting material, thus causing a sinkhole.

 

 

And desire not corruption in the land. Indeed, Allah does not like corrupters.


 

Sources

The Recitation, http://www.quran.com

Galchen, Rivka.  “Weather Underground.”  The New Yorker.  13.04.2015. Retrieved from http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2015/04/13/weather-underground

“Sinkhole – Artificial Processes”.  Wikipedia.  Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sinkhole#Artificial_processes

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Chess, not Checkers


chessif i bring a chessmaster up here and i ask him, “what are the principles by which i can become a master of this game of chess?” he’ll say these four things:

chessboxin

  1. he’ll say that “you need a sense of patience.” alright?  if you don’t have patience, don’t even trychessboard-2 to begin the game- to learn.
  1. he’ll say, “you need a sense of timing. if you don’t have a sense of timing, don’t open the book.”
  1. you have to have knowledge of your opponent. alright?
  1. and then the fourth one they’ll tell you is that you have to be willing to make any and all sacrifices.

now, ladies and gentlemen, why are the dark side winning the game?

  1. chessboard-3it’s ‘cause they got infinite they’ve been workin’ on one thing for 50,000 years.  i call that patience.
  1. they got a brilliant sense of timing, ‘cause they know all about astrology and the divination that we’ve forgotten, that our agricultural ancestors all knew about. “well, we’re with the julian calendar and we’re not interested in any of that stuff anymore.” we’re slaves of the watch, but we don’t know about the higher timing, to rule our own lives by.kkk_vs_black_playing_chess
  1. they have amazing knowledge of you. right?  they have intense knowledge of us, their enemies.
  1. and the fourth one is the clincher, isn’t it? ‘cause they’re willing to make any and all sacrifices when and wherever they need to do it.

(from “Esoteric Agenda”)

Urban Gardening: You- Yes, YOU- Can Grow Food ANYwhere!

The whos, whats, whens, wheres, whys and hows of urban gardening…  with picture proof that you can do it!

Who?

YOU!  Your family, neighbors and friends.

What?

  • Growing your own food, herbs, spices and medicine
  • Supporting bee populations by planting flowers they can collect pollen from, and trees they can build hives in (Bee populations are collapsing, and without them plants can’t cross-pollinate)
  • Mulching and Composting to create fertile soil to use in garden beds or potted plants

When?

Why not now?

Where?

Any place you can find or put dirt.

  • If you have a yard, you’re already good to go.
  • If you live in an apartment or condo, you should be able to ask the property owner for permission to use a plot for growing.
  • If all else fails, buy some pots or make them out of used buckets or bottles.  You could also buy a large bin from a local home supply store.
  • Make the garden in your house, or on your porch or patio!

Why?

  • To eat better food- the radishes we grew last year were so much more sweeter and tangier than the ones I bought yesterday.
  • To avoid pesticides and GMO:  If you don’t put them, no one else will. Growing your own food gives you knowledge and control over what you and your loved ones put in and on their bodies
  • To save money- You can’t believe how many tomatoes a tomato patch can yield.  When we harvested, we HAD to give some away, eat some, then freeze the rest for later.
  • A new, healthy hobby- Gardening is VERY fulfilling, and hard work = good exercise!  Remember how fun it was play in the mud as a kid?  It still is!
  • Learn about nature and connect with the earth
  • Have food supplies in times of crisis- You never know!
  • Extra income- Sell your surplus at a farmer’s market!
  • Interior decorating- Beautify your living/work space with flowers, and remember that indoor plants naturally purify the air and increase oxygen!

How?

  • Tools you’ll need:  shovel, hoe, rake
  • Pots:  Buy some, or use any used buckets or bottles (a great way to recycle by the way)
  • Study the local climate to learn when is the best time to plant what, and how to plant it.  Ask a neighbor, elderly family member or anyone with experience farming or gardening for advice (a great way to make friends).  Buy the appropriate seeds and plant them!
  • To create the right soil, you could mulch or compost.  This basically means letting organic waste decompose in dirt, and then using that dirt, which will be very rich in nutrients, to plant in.  You can start by collecting all your organic waste- eggshells, food that has gone bad, coffee grounds, tea leaves, plant rinds, etc.- and burying it at the end of the day.  This should be done AWAY from your house, because it will attract bugs.  Make sure you cover each deposit well, so it will actually decompose, and not smell.

Our Experience with Urban Gardening

I live in an apartment complex in Saudi Arabia- not exactly the place you’d expect to be able to plant crops.  But you’d be surprised what you can grow here:

Beautiful flower bush in full bloom
Beautiful flower bush in full bloom
Henna tree (Where the body paint comes from)
Henna tree (Where the body paint comes from)
Ladybug in a berry patch in Jeddah, on the Red Sea coast across the peninsula from where I live near the Persian Gulf
Ladybug in a berry patch in Jeddah, on the Red Sea coast across the peninsula from where I live near the Persian Gulf

We’ve successfully planted and grown orange trees, lemon trees, garlic, potatoes, eggplant, chili peppers, radish, onions, tomatoes, coriander, aloe vera, basil, and various flowers.

A year ago this month I had two major setbacks:  tearing my achilles (unable to do work for 5 months) and was moved by my university from a house on the compound that had a yard, to an apartment complex.  At the same time, my wife was also pregnant with our 4th child, and summer was coming.  It wasn’t looking good for our garden…

2 1/2 months in a cast...
2 1/2 months in a cast…

But we found a few solutions.

1) Potted plants

When we tried to move our lemon and orange trees from the ground to pots, they died.  But we bought new ones, and they’re coming along:

Citrus sapling
Citrus sapling

We also have flowers and aloe vera in pots inside our house and on our patios:

Stairwell
Stairwell- Basil
Front patio
Front patio- Basil, Aloe Vera, etc.
Front Patio
Front Patio
20150214_163803
Staircase

 

Aloe vera, by the way, is a very effective medicine.  We use its juice for cuts, sunburn, rashes, and aftershave (no more razor bumps!)  It’s a hardy plant that just needs water, so I recommend it to everyone.

2) Find potential garden beds and use them

There are a lot of empty plots in the concrete around our house that weren’t being used.  The one right below our apartment is now growing flowers, coriander (which we just harvested), and eggplant.

20150214_125828

 

Another one nearby has chili peppers, garlic, onion, coriander, peppermint, and tomatoes.

20150214_125853

In the highest terrace, we just put two trees of a local species that bees like to use for hives.  We hope that they’ll also provide shade in the extremely hot Arabian summers when they mature.

They don’t look like they’re doing too well, but that usually happens when you re-pot plants.  As long as they bounce back before summertime, they should be fine.  If they don’t, we’ll try again.  You win some, you lose some, especially starting off.  It takes patience…

3) DIY Compost Heap

I just dug a compost bed this morning.  It was a sand bed full of rocks, concrete, glass, and some scary-looking red beetles!  My girls and I dumped out all the rocks and glass.

Little Gardeners in Training
Little Gardeners in Training

I had to take a hammer to the concrete (dumped there by local workers) and before shoveling it all out.  Then I dug up half of it, dumping the sand on the other side.

To compost, I’ll just take our day’s- or meal’s- organic leftovers or garbage, dump it on the sand, then bury it, like so:

1. Dig
1. Dig
20150214_134034
2. Dump

 

3.  Cover
3. Cover

By this fall- which is planting season here due to the extreme heat of summer- the waste should be decomposed.  We may or may not have to add dirt to it before using.  We’ll see.

4) Hire a gardener

OK, I cheated.

With me in crutches and then a cane, my wife in late pregnancy and then postpartum, we really couldn’t do anything.  Luckily, for us, we met a very man with an honorable disposition named Muhi adDeen who works as a groundskeeper on campus.  His expertise and willingness to help have been essential, and we hope he will continue to share his expertise with us and our children.

Me & Muhi-adDeen
Me & Muhi-adDeen

5) Use House Plants

These are usually very low maintenance- just flowers or vines that you have to water a few times a week.  If you travel, make sure you have a reliable neighbor take over while you’re gone.

Hanging Gardens of Dhahran
Hanging Gardens of Dhahran

20150214_164029

6) Harvest!

Look at the peppers my wife picked this afternoon (an essential ingredient in her native Punjabi cuisine):20150214_134316 20150214_134310It’s already paying off!

We’re open to suggestions.  Send yours in the comments and I’ll put them into the article.  Let’s learn and grow together!

 

These Are The Surprising Jobs You’ll Be Doing By The 2030s (from io9.com)

If you don’t stay abreast of technology, you will become obsolete.

Here are 10 jobs the Careers 2030 job fair and Jayar LaFontaine, a Foresight Strategist at Idea Couture, believe will be in demand in 20 years, compiled by George Dvorsky:

Robot Counselor

Rewilder

Garbage Designer

Neighborhood Watch Specialist

Healthcare Navigator

Simplicity Designer

Nostalgist

Telesurgeon

Solar Technology Specialist

Aquaponic Fish Farmer

Read the amazing job descriptions at These Are The Surprising Jobs You’ll Be Doing By The 2030s – io9.com

These Are The Surprising Jobs You’ll Be Doing By The 2030s

A Quarter Of Europe’s Bumblebees, Vital To Agriculture, Face Extinction

Of the five most important insect pollinators of European crops, three are bumblebee species.

What are Bumblebees and Why Are They Important?

Often with yellow and black stripes and bigger than honeybees, bumblebees live in small nests of up to 200 and do not make honeycombs. Some bumblebees are commercially bred to pollinate tomatoes, peppers and aubergines in greenhouses.  Only queen bumblebees survive the winter.

Of the five most important insect pollinators of European crops, three are bumblebee species,” said the IUCN, which groups governments, scientists and conservation groups.

Honeybees, living in longer-lasting colonies of thousands of bees, make honeycombs largely to ensure that the insects have food to survive months with no nectar-making flowers.

What’s Happening to Them?

Almost a quarter of Europe’s bumblebees are at risk of extinction due to loss of habitats and climate change, threatening pollination of crops worth billions of dollars, a study showed on Wednesday.

Sixteen of 68 bumblebee species in Europe are at risk, the Red List of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) said. It is preparing a global study of the bees, whose honeybee cousins are in steep decline because of disease.

Populations of the critically endangered Bombus cullumanus, now found only in France, have fallen by more than 80 percent in the past decade, apparently because of a reduction in the amount of meadows with clover, its favourite forage, the study added.

“Climate change, the intensification of agriculture and changes in agricultural land are the main threats” to bumblebees, said the report, the first Red List assessment of threats to bumblebees.

Read More at http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/04/02/europe-bumblebees_n_5075547.html?ir=Taste&ref=topbar